William III of England

  • william iii and ii
    colour oil painting of william
    portrait by sir godfrey kneller, 1680s
    king of england, scotland and ireland
    (more ...)
    reign1689[1] – 8 march 1702
    coronation11 april 1689
    predecessorjames ii & vii
    successoranne
    co-monarchmary ii
    stadtholder of holland, zeeland, utrecht, guelders and overijssel
    reign4 july 1672 – 8 march 1702
    predecessorwilliam ii
    successorsecond stadtholderless period
    prince of orange
    reign4 november 1650[2] –
    8 march 1702
    predecessorwilliam ii
    successorjohn william friso (titular)
    born4 november 1650
    [ns: 14 november 1650][2]
    binnenhof, the hague, dutch republic
    died8 march 1702 (aged 51)
    [ns: 19 march 1702]
    kensington palace, london, kingdom of england
    burial12 april 1702
    westminster abbey, london
    spouse
    mary ii of england
    (m. 1677; died 1694)
    house
    • orange-nassau
    • stuart
    fatherwilliam ii, prince of orange
    mothermary, princess royal
    religionprotestant
    signaturewilliam iii and ii's signature

    william iii (dutch: willem; 4 november 1650 – 8 march 1702),[2] also widely known as william of orange, was sovereign prince of orange from birth, stadtholder of holland, zeeland, utrecht, guelders and overijssel in the dutch republic from the 1670s and king of england, ireland and scotland from 1689 until his death. popular histories usually refer to his joint reign with his wife, queen mary ii, as that of william and mary. as king of scotland, he is known as william ii.[3] he is sometimes informally known as "king billy" in northern ireland and scotland,[4] where his victory at the battle of the boyne in 1690 is still commemorated by unionists and ulster loyalists.

    william was the only child of william ii, prince of orange, who died a week before his birth, and mary, princess of orange, the daughter of king charles i of england. in 1677, during the reign of his uncle king charles ii of england, he married his cousin mary, the fifteen-year-old daughter of charles ii's brother james, duke of york. a protestant, william participated in several wars against the powerful catholic king louis xiv of france, in coalition with protestant and catholic powers in europe. many protestants heralded him as a champion of their faith. in 1685, his catholic uncle and father-in-law, james, became king of england, scotland and ireland. james's reign was unpopular with the protestant majority in britain, who feared a revival of catholicism. supported by a group of influential british political and religious leaders, william invaded england in what became known as the glorious revolution. in 1688, he landed at the south-western english port of brixham. shortly afterwards, james was deposed.

    william's reputation as a staunch protestant enabled him and his wife to take power. during the early years of his reign, he was occupied abroad with the nine years' war (1688–97). queen mary ii died in 1694. in 1696, the jacobites plotted unsuccessfully to assassinate william and return his father-in-law to the throne. william's lack of children and the death in 1700 of his sister-in-law anne's last surviving child prince william, duke of gloucester, threatened the protestant succession. the danger was averted by placing distant relatives, the protestant hanoverians, in line. upon his death in 1702, the king was succeeded in britain by anne and as titular prince of orange by his cousin, john william friso.

  • early life
  • early offices
  • becoming stadtholder
  • glorious revolution
  • rule with mary ii
  • later years
  • death
  • legacy
  • titles, styles, and arms
  • ancestry
  • see also
  • references
  • external links

William III and II
Colour oil painting of William
Portrait by Sir Godfrey Kneller, 1680s
King of England, Scotland and Ireland
Reign1689[1] – 8 March 1702
Coronation11 April 1689
PredecessorJames II & VII
SuccessorAnne
Co-monarchMary II
Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Guelders and Overijssel
Reign4 July 1672 – 8 March 1702
PredecessorWilliam II
SuccessorSecond Stadtholderless period
Prince of Orange
Reign4 November 1650[2] –
8 March 1702
PredecessorWilliam II
SuccessorJohn William Friso (titular)
Born4 November 1650
[NS: 14 November 1650][2]
Binnenhof, The Hague, Dutch Republic
Died8 March 1702 (aged 51)
[NS: 19 March 1702]
Kensington Palace, London, Kingdom of England
Burial12 April 1702
Spouse
Mary II of England
(m. 1677; died 1694)
House
FatherWilliam II, Prince of Orange
MotherMary, Princess Royal
ReligionProtestant
SignatureWilliam III and II's signature

William III (Dutch: Willem; 4 November 1650 – 8 March 1702),[2] also widely known as William of Orange, was sovereign Prince of Orange from birth, Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Guelders and Overijssel in the Dutch Republic from the 1670s and King of England, Ireland and Scotland from 1689 until his death. Popular histories usually refer to his joint reign with his wife, Queen Mary II, as that of William and Mary. As King of Scotland, he is known as William II.[3] He is sometimes informally known as "King Billy" in Northern Ireland and Scotland,[4] where his victory at the Battle of the Boyne in 1690 is still commemorated by Unionists and Ulster loyalists.

William was the only child of William II, Prince of Orange, who died a week before his birth, and Mary, Princess of Orange, the daughter of King Charles I of England. In 1677, during the reign of his uncle King Charles II of England, he married his cousin Mary, the fifteen-year-old daughter of Charles II's brother James, Duke of York. A Protestant, William participated in several wars against the powerful Catholic King Louis XIV of France, in coalition with Protestant and Catholic powers in Europe. Many Protestants heralded him as a champion of their faith. In 1685, his Catholic uncle and father-in-law, James, became King of England, Scotland and Ireland. James's reign was unpopular with the Protestant majority in Britain, who feared a revival of Catholicism. Supported by a group of influential British political and religious leaders, William invaded England in what became known as the Glorious Revolution. In 1688, he landed at the south-western English port of Brixham. Shortly afterwards, James was deposed.

William's reputation as a staunch Protestant enabled him and his wife to take power. During the early years of his reign, he was occupied abroad with the Nine Years' War (1688–97). Queen Mary II died in 1694. In 1696, the Jacobites plotted unsuccessfully to assassinate William and return his father-in-law to the throne. William's lack of children and the death in 1700 of his sister-in-law Anne's last surviving child Prince William, Duke of Gloucester, threatened the Protestant succession. The danger was averted by placing distant relatives, the Protestant Hanoverians, in line. Upon his death in 1702, the king was succeeded in Britain by Anne and as titular Prince of Orange by his cousin, John William Friso.