UNICEF

UNICEF
Emblem of the United Nations.svg
UNICEF Logo.svg
AbbreviationUNICEF
Formation11 December 1946; 73 years ago (1946-12-11) (as United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund)
TypeFund
Legal statusActive
HeadquartersNew York City, USA
Head
Executive Director of the United Nations Children’s Fund
Henrietta H. Fore
Parent organization
United Nations General Assembly
www.unicef.org
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The United Nations Children's Fund is a United Nations agency responsible for providing humanitarian and developmental aid to children around the world.[1] It was established in 1946 as the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) by the U.N. General Assembly, at the behest of Polish physician Ludwik Rajchman, to provide immediate hunger relief and healthcare to children and mothers in countries devastated by World War II. In 1950, UNICEF's mandate was extended to address the long-term needs of children and women in developing countries, and in 1953 it became a permanent part of the United Nations System. The agency's name was subsequently changed to its current form, though it retains the original acronym.[2]

UNICEF relies entirely on contributions from governments and private donors. Its total income as of 2018 was $5.2 billion, of which two-thirds came from governments; private groups and individuals contribute the rest through national committees.[3] It is governed by a 36-member executive board that establishes policies, approves programs, and oversees administrative and financial plans. The board is made up of government representatives elected by the United Nations Economic and Social Council, usually for three-year terms.

UNICEF's programs emphasize developing community-level services to promote the health and well-being of children. Most of its work is in the field, with a presence in 192 countries and territories. Its network includes 150 country offices, headquarters and other offices, and 34 "national committees" that carry out its mission through programs developed with host governments. Seven regional offices provide technical assistance to country offices as needed.

UNICEF's Supply Division is based in Copenhagen and serves as the primary point of distribution for such essential items as vaccines, antiretroviral medicines for children and mothers with HIV, nutritional supplements, emergency shelters, family reunification, and educational supplies.[4] UNICEF was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1965, the Indira Gandhi Prize in 1989 and the Prince of Asturias Award of Concord in 2006.

Governance

UNICEF-care tent in Sudan

Each country office carries out UNICEF's mission through a unique program of cooperation developed with the host government. This five-year program focuses on practical ways to realize the rights of children and women. Regional offices guide this work and provide technical assistance to country offices as needed. Overall management and administration of the organization takes place at the headquarters, where global policy on children is shaped. Guiding and monitoring all of UNICEF's work is an Executive Board made up of 36 members who are government representatives. They establish policies, approve programs and decide on administrative and financial plans and budgets. Executive Management Board's work is coordinated by the Bureau, comprising the President and four Vice-Presidents, each officer representing one of the five regional groups. These five officers, each one representing one of the five regional groups, are elected by the Executive Board each year from among its members, with the presidency rotating among the regional groups on an annual basis. As a matter of custom, permanent members of the Security Council do not serve as officers of the Executive Board. Office of the Secretary of the Executive Board supports and services the Executive Board. It is responsible for maintaining an effective relationship between the Executive Board and the UNICEF secretariat, and helps to organize the field visits of the Executive Board.[5][6][7]

UNICEF School in a box contains basic educational items for one teacher and 40 students

UNICEF Regional Offices

The following countries are home to UNICEF Regional Offices.