Tomoyuki Yamashita

  • tomoyuki yamashita
    山下 奉文
    yamashita tomoyuki.jpg
    military governor of japan to the philippines
    in office
    26 september 1944 – 2 september 1945
    monarchemperor hirohito
    preceded byshigenori kuroda
    succeeded byoffice abolished
    (officially by manuel roxas as president of the philippines)
    personal details
    born(1885-11-08)8 november 1885
    Ōtoyo, kōchi, japan
    died23 february 1946(1946-02-23) (aged 60)
    los baños, laguna, commonwealth of the philippines
    cause of deathhanging
    resting placetama reien cemetery, fuchū, tokyo, japan
    spouse(s)
    hisako nagayama (m. 1916⁠–⁠1946)
    childrennone
    motheryuu
    fathersakichi yamashita
    alma materimperial japanese army academy
    professionmilitary
    awardsorder of the golden kite
    order of the rising sun
    order of the sacred treasure
    military service
    nickname(s)tiger of malaya
    the beast of bataan[1]
    allegiance empire of japan
    branch/service imperial japanese army
    years of service1905–1945
    rank帝國陸軍の階級―襟章―大将.svg general
    commands25th army
    1st area army
    14th area army
    battles/warsworld war i
    second sino-japanese war
    pacific war

    tomoyuki yamashita (山下 奉文, yamashita tomoyuki, 8 november 1885 – 23 february 1946; also called tomobumi yamashita[2]) was a japanese general of the imperial japanese army during world war ii. yamashita led japanese forces during the invasion of malaya and battle of singapore, with his accomplishment of conquering malaya and singapore in 70 days earning him the sobriquet the tiger of malaya and led to the british prime minister, winston churchill, calling the ignominious fall of singapore to japan the "worst disaster" and "largest capitulation" in british military history.[3] yamashita was assigned to defend the philippines from the advancing allied forces later in the war, and while unable to prevent the allied advance, he was able to hold on to part of luzon until after the formal surrender of japan in august 1945.

    after the war, yamashita was tried for war crimes committed by troops under his command during the japanese defense of the occupied philippines in 1944. in a controversial trial, yamashita was found guilty of his troops' atrocities even though there was no evidence that he approved or even knew of them, and indeed many of the atrocities were committed by troops not actually under his command. yamashita was sentenced to death and executed by hanging in 1946. the ruling against yamashita – holding the commander responsible for subordinates' war crimes as long as the commander did not attempt to discover and stop them from occurring – came to be known as the yamashita standard.

  • biography
  • trial
  • see also
  • notes
  • references
  • external links

Tomoyuki Yamashita
山下 奉文
Yamashita Tomoyuki.jpg
Military Governor of Japan to the Philippines
In office
26 September 1944 – 2 September 1945
MonarchEmperor Hirohito
Preceded byShigenori Kuroda
Succeeded byOffice abolished
(Officially by Manuel Roxas as President of the Philippines)
Personal details
Born(1885-11-08)8 November 1885
Ōtoyo, Kōchi, Japan
Died23 February 1946(1946-02-23) (aged 60)
Los Baños, Laguna, Commonwealth of the Philippines
Cause of deathHanging
Resting placeTama Reien Cemetery, Fuchū, Tokyo, Japan
Spouse(s)
Hisako Nagayama (m. 1916⁠–⁠1946)
Childrennone
MotherYuu
FatherSakichi Yamashita
Alma materImperial Japanese Army Academy
Professionmilitary
AwardsOrder of the Golden Kite
Order of the Rising Sun
Order of the Sacred Treasure
Military service
Nickname(s)Tiger of Malaya
The Beast of Bataan[1]
Allegiance Empire of Japan
Branch/service Imperial Japanese Army
Years of service1905–1945
Rank帝國陸軍の階級―襟章―大将.svg General
Commands25th Army
1st Area Army
14th Area Army
Battles/warsWorld War I
Second Sino-Japanese War
Pacific War

Tomoyuki Yamashita (山下 奉文, Yamashita Tomoyuki, 8 November 1885 – 23 February 1946; also called Tomobumi Yamashita[2]) was a Japanese general of the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II. Yamashita led Japanese forces during the invasion of Malaya and Battle of Singapore, with his accomplishment of conquering Malaya and Singapore in 70 days earning him the sobriquet The Tiger of Malaya and led to the British Prime Minister, Winston Churchill, calling the ignominious fall of Singapore to Japan the "worst disaster" and "largest capitulation" in British military history.[3] Yamashita was assigned to defend the Philippines from the advancing Allied forces later in the war, and while unable to prevent the Allied advance, he was able to hold on to part of Luzon until after the formal Surrender of Japan in August 1945.

After the war, Yamashita was tried for war crimes committed by troops under his command during the Japanese defense of the occupied Philippines in 1944. In a controversial trial, Yamashita was found guilty of his troops' atrocities even though there was no evidence that he approved or even knew of them, and indeed many of the atrocities were committed by troops not actually under his command. Yamashita was sentenced to death and executed by hanging in 1946. The ruling against Yamashita – holding the commander responsible for subordinates' war crimes as long as the commander did not attempt to discover and stop them from occurring – came to be known as the Yamashita standard.