The Troubles

The Troubles
a map showing the outline of Ireland in the colour green with the capitals of the North and South marked on it
Political map of Ireland
DateLate 1960s–1998[1][2][3][4]
Northern Ireland
Violence occasionally spread to the Republic of Ireland, England, and mainland Europe

State security forces

Irish republican paramilitaries

Ulster loyalist paramilitaries

Casualties and losses

British Army: 705
∟(inc. UDR)
RUC: 301
NIPS: 24
TA: 7
Other UK police: 6
Royal Air Force: 4
Royal Navy: 2
Total: 1,049[7]

Irish Army: 1
Gardaí: 9
IPS: 1
Total: 11[7]
PIRA: 292
INLA: 38
OIRA: 27
Total: 368[7]
8,000+ arrested[8]
UDA: 91
UVF: 62
RHC: 4
LVF: 3
UR: 2[9]
Total: 162[7]
Civilians killed: 1,840[10] (or 1,935 inc. ex-combatants)[7]
Total dead: 3,532[10]
Total injured: 47,500+[11]
All casualties: around 50,000[12]

The Troubles (Irish: Na Trioblóidí) was an ethno-nationalist[13][14][15][16] conflict in Northern Ireland during the late 20th century. Also known internationally as the Northern Ireland conflict,[17][18][19][20][21] it is sometimes described as an "irregular war"[22][23][24] or "low-level war".[25][26][27] The conflict began in the late 1960s and is usually deemed to have ended with the Good Friday Agreement of 1998.[3][2][28][29][30] Although the Troubles primarily took place in Northern Ireland, at times the violence spilled over into parts of the Republic of Ireland, England, and mainland Europe.

The conflict was primarily political and nationalistic, fuelled by historical events.[31] It also had an ethnic or sectarian dimension,[32] although it was not a religious conflict.[13][33] A key issue was the constitutional status of Northern Ireland. Unionists/loyalists, who were mostly Protestants, wanted Northern Ireland to remain within the United Kingdom. Irish nationalists/republicans, who were mostly Catholics, wanted Northern Ireland to leave the United Kingdom and join a united Ireland.

The conflict began during a campaign to end discrimination against the Catholic/nationalist minority by the Protestant/unionist government and police force.[34][35] The authorities attempted to suppress this protest campaign and were accused of police brutality; it was also met with violence from loyalists, who alleged it was a republican front. Increasing tensions led to severe violence in August 1969 and the deployment of British troops, in what became the British Army's longest ever operation.[36] They built 'peace walls' to keep the two communities apart. Some Catholics initially welcomed the army as a more neutral force, but it soon came to be seen as hostile and biased, particularly after Bloody Sunday.[37] The emergence of armed paramilitary organisations led to subsequent warfare over the next three decades.

The main participants in the Troubles were republican paramilitaries such as the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) and the Irish National Liberation Army (INLA); loyalist paramilitaries such as the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) and Ulster Defence Association (UDA); British state security forces—the British Army and Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC); and political activists and politicians. The security forces of the Republic played a smaller role. Republican paramilitaries carried out a guerrilla campaign against British security forces, as well as a bombing campaign against infrastructure, commercial and political targets. Loyalists targeted republicans/nationalists, and attacked the wider Catholic community in what they described as retaliation. At times there were bouts of sectarian tit-for-tat violence. The British security forces undertook both a policing and a counter-insurgency role, primarily against republicans. There were some incidents of collusion between British security forces and loyalists. The Troubles also involved numerous riots, mass protests and acts of civil disobedience, and led to segregation and the creation of no-go areas.

More than 3,500 people were killed in the conflict, of whom 52% were civilians, 32% were members of the British security forces, and 16% were members of paramilitary groups.[7] There has been sporadic violence since the Good Friday Agreement was signed, including ongoing punishment attacks[38] and a campaign by dissident republicans.[3][29][39]


A "peace line" in Belfast, built to separate nationalist and unionist neighbourhoods.

"The Troubles" refers to the three-decade conflict between nationalists (mainly self-identified as Irish or Roman Catholic) and unionists (mainly self-identified as British or Protestant). The word "troubles" has been used as a synonym for violent conflict for centuries.[a] The term was used to describe the Irish revolutionary period in the early twentieth century.[40] It was subsequently adopted to refer to the escalating violence in Northern Ireland after 1969.[41][42][43][44] The violence was characterised by the armed campaigns of Irish republican and Ulster loyalist paramilitary groups and British state security forces (the British Army and the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC)). It thus became the focus for the longest major campaign in the history of the British Army.[45][46]

The British government's position is that its forces were neutral in the conflict, trying to uphold law and order in Northern Ireland and the right of the people of Northern Ireland to democratic self-determination. Nationalists regard the state forces as forces of occupation or partisan combatants in the conflict. The British security forces focused on republican paramilitaries and activists, and the "Ballast" investigation by the Police Ombudsman confirmed that certain British officers colluded on several occasions with loyalist paramilitaries, were involved in murder, and furthermore obstructed the course of justice when claims of collusion and murder were investigated.[47]

The Troubles were brought to an uneasy end by a peace process that included the declaration of ceasefires by most paramilitary organisations, the complete decommissioning of the IRA's weapons, the reform of the police, and the corresponding withdrawal of the British Army from the streets and sensitive Irish border areas such as South Armagh and County Fermanagh, as agreed by the signatories to the Belfast Agreement (commonly known as the "Good Friday Agreement"). One part of the Agreement is that Northern Ireland will remain within the United Kingdom unless a majority of the Northern Irish electorate vote otherwise.[48] It also established the Northern Ireland Executive, a devolved power-sharing government, which must consist of both unionist and nationalist parties.

Although the number of active participants was relatively small, the Troubles affected many in Northern Ireland on a daily basis; their impact sometimes spread to England and the Republic of Ireland, and, occasionally, to parts of mainland Europe.[49]