Suez Crisis

    • suez crisis
    • tripartite aggression
    • sinai war
    part of the cold war and the arab–israeli conflict
    tanks destroyed sinai.jpg
    damaged egyptian equipment
    date29 october 1956 (1956-10-29) – 7 november 1956 (1956-11-07)
    (1 week and 2 days)
    (sinai under israeli occupation until march 1957)
    location
    gaza strip and egypt (sinai and suez canal zone)
    result

    coalition military victory;[1][2][3]
    egyptian political victory[1]

    • anglo-french withdrawal following international pressure (december 1956)
    • israeli occupation of sinai (until march 1957)
    • unef deployment in sinai[4]
    • straits of tiran re-opened to israeli shipping
    • resignation of anthony eden as british prime minister, end of britain's role as a superpower[5][6][7]
    • guy mollet's position as french prime minister heavily damaged
    belligerents
    • israel israel
    • united kingdom united kingdom
    • french fourth republic france
    • egypt egypt
    commanders and leaders
    • israel david ben-gurion
    • israel moshe dayan
    • israel asaf simhoni
    • israel haim bar-lev
    • israel avraham yoffe
    • israel israel tal
    • israel ariel sharon
    • israel uri ben-ari
    • united kingdom anthony eden
    • united kingdom gerald templer
    • united kingdom charles keightley
    • united kingdom hugh stockwell
    • united kingdom manley power
    • french fourth republic rené coty
    • french fourth republic guy mollet
    • french fourth republic pierre barjot
    • french fourth republic andré beaufre
    • french fourth republic jacques massu
    • egypt gamal abdel nasser
    • egypt abdel hakim amer
    • egypt saadedden mutawally
    • egypt sami yassa
    • egypt jaafar al-abd
    • egypt salahedin moguy
    • egypt raouf mahfouz zaki
    strength
    • israel 175,000
    • united kingdom 45,000
    • french fourth republic 34,000
    300,000[8]
    casualties and losses
    • israel:
      • 172 killed[9]
      • 817 wounded
      • 1 captured
    • united kingdom:
      • 16 killed
      • 96 wounded
    • france:
      • 10 killed
      • 33 wounded
    • 1,650[10][11]–3,000 killed[12]
    • 1,000 civilians killed[10]
    • 4,900 wounded
    • 5,000[13]–30,000+ captured[14]

    the suez crisis, or the second arab–israeli war,[15][16][17] also called the tripartite aggression (arabic: العدوان الثلاثي‎) in the arab world[18] and sinai war in israel,[19] was an invasion of egypt in late 1956 by israel, followed by the united kingdom and france. the aims were to regain western control of the suez canal and to remove egyptian president gamal abdel nasser, who had just nationalised the canal.[20] after the fighting had started, political pressure from the united states, the soviet union and the united nations led to a withdrawal by the three invaders. the episode humiliated the united kingdom and france and strengthened nasser.[21][22][23]

    on 29 october, israel invaded the egyptian sinai. britain and france issued a joint ultimatum to cease fire, which was ignored. on 5 november, britain and france landed paratroopers along the suez canal. the egyptian forces were defeated, but they did block the canal to all shipping. it later became clear that israel, france and britain had conspired to plan out the invasion.

    the three allies had attained a number of their military objectives, but the canal was useless. heavy political pressure from the united states and the ussr led to a withdrawal. u.s. president dwight d. eisenhower had strongly warned britain not to invade; he threatened serious damage to the british financial system by selling the us government's pound sterling bonds. historians conclude the crisis "signified the end of great britain's role as one of the world's major powers".[24][25] the suez canal was closed from october 1956 until march 1957. israel fulfilled some of its objectives, such as attaining freedom of navigation through the straits of tiran, which egypt had blocked to israeli shipping since 1950.[26]

    as a result of the conflict, the united nations created the unef peacekeepers to police the egyptian–israeli border, british prime minister anthony eden resigned, canadian external affairs minister lester pearson won the nobel peace prize, and the ussr may have been emboldened to invade hungary.[27][28]

  • background
  • post egyptian revolution period
  • nasser and 1956 events
  • canal nationalisation
  • franco-british-israeli war plan
  • forces
  • invasion
  • casualties
  • end of hostilities
  • aftermath
  • see also
  • notes
  • references
  • external links

  • Suez Crisis
  • Tripartite aggression
  • Sinai War
Part of the Cold War and the Arab–Israeli conflict
Tanks Destroyed Sinai.jpg
Damaged Egyptian equipment
Date29 October 1956 (1956-10-29) – 7 November 1956 (1956-11-07)
(1 week and 2 days)
(Sinai under Israeli occupation until March 1957)
Location
Result

Coalition military victory;[1][2][3]
Egyptian political victory[1]

  • Anglo-French withdrawal following international pressure (December 1956)
  • Israeli occupation of Sinai (until March 1957)
  • UNEF deployment in Sinai[4]
  • Straits of Tiran re-opened to Israeli shipping
  • Resignation of Anthony Eden as British Prime Minister, end of Britain's role as a superpower[5][6][7]
  • Guy Mollet's position as French Prime Minister heavily damaged
Belligerents
Commanders and leaders
Strength
  • Israel 175,000
  • United Kingdom 45,000
  • French Fourth Republic 34,000
300,000[8]
Casualties and losses
  • Israel:
    • 172 killed[9]
    • 817 wounded
    • 1 captured
  • United Kingdom:
    • 16 killed
    • 96 wounded
  • France:
    • 10 killed
    • 33 wounded

The Suez Crisis, or the Second Arab–Israeli war,[15][16][17] also called the tripartite aggression (Arabic: العدوان الثلاثي‎) in the Arab world[18] and Sinai War in Israel,[19] was an invasion of Egypt in late 1956 by Israel, followed by the United Kingdom and France. The aims were to regain Western control of the Suez Canal and to remove Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser, who had just nationalised the canal.[20] After the fighting had started, political pressure from the United States, the Soviet Union and the United Nations led to a withdrawal by the three invaders. The episode humiliated the United Kingdom and France and strengthened Nasser.[21][22][23]

On 29 October, Israel invaded the Egyptian Sinai. Britain and France issued a joint ultimatum to cease fire, which was ignored. On 5 November, Britain and France landed paratroopers along the Suez Canal. The Egyptian forces were defeated, but they did block the canal to all shipping. It later became clear that Israel, France and Britain had conspired to plan out the invasion.

The three allies had attained a number of their military objectives, but the canal was useless. Heavy political pressure from the United States and the USSR led to a withdrawal. U.S. president Dwight D. Eisenhower had strongly warned Britain not to invade; he threatened serious damage to the British financial system by selling the US government's pound sterling bonds. Historians conclude the crisis "signified the end of Great Britain's role as one of the world's major powers".[24][25] The Suez Canal was closed from October 1956 until March 1957. Israel fulfilled some of its objectives, such as attaining freedom of navigation through the Straits of Tiran, which Egypt had blocked to Israeli shipping since 1950.[26]

As a result of the conflict, the United Nations created the UNEF Peacekeepers to police the Egyptian–Israeli border, British prime minister Anthony Eden resigned, Canadian external affairs minister Lester Pearson won the Nobel Peace Prize, and the USSR may have been emboldened to invade Hungary.[27][28]