Spanish Civil War

  • spanish civil war
    part of the interwar period
    infobox collage for spanish civil war.jpg
    clockwise from top-left: members of the xi international brigade at the battle of belchite; bf 109 with nationalist markings; bombing of an airfield in spanish sahara; republican soldiers at the siege of the alcázar; nationalist soldiers operating an anti-aircraft gun; hms royal oak in an incursion around gibraltar
    date17 july 1936 – 1 april 1939
    (2 years, 8 months, 2 weeks and 1 day)
    location
    result

    nationalist victory

    • end of the second spanish republic
    • establishment of the spanish state under the rule of francisco franco
    belligerents

    republicans

    • ejército popular
    • popular front
    • cnt-fai
    • ugt
    • generalitat de catalunya
    • euzko gudarostea[a]
    • international brigades
    • supported by:
    •  soviet union
    •  mexico
    • france (1936)
    • foreign volunteers

    nationalists

    • fet y de las jons[b]
    • fe de las jons[c]
    • requetés/ct[c]
    • ceda[c]
    • renovación española[c]
    • army of africa
    • kingdom of italy italy
    • nazi germany germany
    • supported by:
    • portugal
    • holy see holy see (diplomatic)
    • foreign volunteers
    commanders and leaders
    • second spanish republic manuel azaña
    • second spanish republic francisco largo caballero
    • second spanish republic juan negrín
    • second spanish republic indalecio prieto
    • second spanish republic vicente rojo lluch
    • second spanish republic josé miaja
    • second spanish republic segismundo casado
    • second spanish republic juan modesto
    • second spanish republic juan hernández saravia
    • second spanish republic carlos romero giménez
    • second spanish republic buenaventura durruti 
    • second spanish republic lluís companys
    • second spanish republicbasque country (autonomous community) josé antonio aguirre
    • spain josé sanjurjo 
    • spain emilio mola 
    • spain francisco franco
    • spain gonzalo queipo de llano
    • spain juan yagüe
    • spain miguel cabanellas
    • spain josé enrique varela
    • spain fidel dávila arrondo
    • spain manuel goded llopis executed
    • spain manuel hedilla
    • spain manuel fal conde
    • kingdom of italy mario roatta
    • kingdom of italy ettore bastico
    • nazi germany hugo sperrle
    strength
    1936 strength:[1]
    • 446,800 combatants[2]
    • 31 ships
    • 12 submarines
    • 13,000 sailors
    1938 strength:[3]
    • 450,000 infantry
    • 350 aircraft
    • 200 tanks

    59,380 international volunteers
    3,015 soviet technicians
    772 soviet pilots
    1936 strength:[4]
    • 58,000 army
    • 68,500 gendarmes
    • 16 operational ships
    • 7,000 sailors[5]
    1938 strength:[6]
    • 600,000 infantry
    • 600 aircraft
    • 290 tanks

    • 50,000 italian troops
    • 16,000 german troops
    • 10,000 portuguese troops
    casualties and losses
    175,000 killed in action[7]
    100,000–130,000 civilians killed inside the francoist zone[8]
    110,000 killed in action[7]
    50,000 civilians killed inside the republican zone[9]
    149,213–2,000,000 total killed[note 1]
    events leading to world war ii
    1. treaty of versailles 1919
    2. polish-soviet war 1919
    3. treaty of trianon 1920
    4. treaty of rapallo 1920
    5. franco-polish alliance 1921
    6. march on rome 1922
    7. corfu incident 1923
    8. occupation of the ruhr 1923–1925
    9. mein kampf 1925
    10. pacification of libya 1923–1932
    11. dawes plan 1924
    12. locarno treaties 1925
    13. young plan 1929
    14. great depression 1929–1941
    15. japanese invasion of manchuria 1931
    16. pacification of manchukuo 1931–1942
    17. january 28 incident 1932
    18. world disarmament conference 1932–1934
    19. defense of the great wall 1933
    20. battle of rehe 1933
    21. nazis' rise to power in germany 1933
    22. tanggu truce 1933
    23. italo-soviet pact 1933
    24. inner mongolian campaign 1933–1936
    25. german–polish non-aggression pact 1934
    26. franco-soviet treaty of mutual assistance 1935
    27. soviet–czechoslovakia treaty of mutual assistance 1935
    28. he–umezu agreement 1935
    29. anglo-german naval agreement 1935
    30. december 9th movement
    31. second italo-ethiopian war 1935–1936
    32. spanish civil war 1936–1939
    33. anti-comintern pact 1936
    34. suiyuan campaign 1936
    35. xi'an incident 1936
    36. second sino-japanese war 1937–1945
    37. uss panay incident 1937
    38. anschluss mar. 1938
    39. may crisis may 1938
    40. battle of lake khasan july–aug. 1938
    41. undeclared german-czechoslovak war sep. 1938
    42. munich agreement sep. 1938
    43. first vienna award nov. 1938
    44. german occupation of czechoslovakia mar. 1939
    45. german ultimatum to lithuania mar. 1939
    46. slovak–hungarian war mar. 1939
    47. final offensive of the spanish civil war mar.–apr. 1939
    48. danzig crisis mar.–aug. 1939
    49. british guarantee to poland mar. 1939
    50. italian invasion of albania apr. 1939
    51. soviet–british–french moscow negotiations apr.–aug. 1939
    52. pact of steel may 1939
    53. battles of khalkhin gol may–sep. 1939
    54. molotov–ribbentrop pact aug. 1939
    55. invasion of poland sep. 1939

    the spanish civil war (spanish: guerra civil española)[note 2] was a civil war in spain fought from 1936 to 1939. republicans loyal to the left-leaning second spanish republic, in alliance with anarchists, of the communist and syndicalist variety, fought against a revolt by the nationalists, an alliance of falangists, monarchists, conservatives and catholics, led by a military group among whom general francisco franco soon achieved a preponderant role. due to the international political climate at the time, the war had many facets and was variously viewed as class struggle, a war of religion, a struggle between dictatorship and republican democracy, between revolution and counterrevolution, and between fascism and communism.[10] it has been frequently called the "dress rehearsal" for world war ii.[11] the nationalists won the war, which ended in early 1939, and ruled spain until franco's death in november 1975.

    the war began after a pronunciamiento (a declaration of military opposition) against the republican government by a group of generals of the spanish republican armed forces, originally under the leadership of josé sanjurjo. the government at the time was a coalition of republicans, supported in the cortes by communist and socialist parties, under the leadership of centre-left president manuel azaña.[12][13] the nationalist group was supported by a number of conservative groups, including ceda, monarchists, including both the opposing alfonsists and the religious conservative carlists, and the fe de las jons, a fascist political party.[14] after the deaths of sanjurjo, emilio mola and manuel goded llopis, franco emerged as the remaining leader of the nationalist side.

    the coup was supported by military units in the spanish protectorate in morocco, pamplona, burgos, zaragoza, valladolid, cádiz, córdoba, and seville. however, rebelling units in some important cities—such as madrid, barcelona, valencia, bilbao, and málaga—did not gain control, and those cities remained under the control of the government. this left spain militarily and politically divided. the nationalists and the republican government fought for control of the country. the nationalist forces received munitions, soldiers, and air support from fascist italy and nazi germany, while the republican side received support from the soviet union and mexico. other countries, such as the united kingdom, france, and the united states, continued to recognise the republican government, but followed an official policy of non-intervention. despite this policy, tens of thousands of citizens from non-interventionist countries directly participated in the conflict. they fought mostly in the pro-republican international brigades, which also included several thousand exiles from pro-nationalist regimes.

    the nationalists advanced from their strongholds in the south and west, capturing most of spain's northern coastline in 1937. they also besieged madrid and the area to its south and west for much of the war. after much of catalonia was captured in 1938 and 1939, and madrid cut off from barcelona, the republican military position became hopeless. following the fall without resistance of barcelona in january 1939, the recognition of the francoist regime by france and the united kingdom in february 1939, and internal conflict between republican factions in madrid in march 1939, franco entered the capital and declared victory on 1 april 1939. hundreds of thousands of spaniards fled to refugee camps in southern france.[15][15] those associated with the losing republicans who stayed were persecuted by the victorious nationalists. franco established a dictatorship in which all right-wing parties were fused into the structure of the franco regime.[14]

    the war became notable for the passion and political division it inspired and for the many atrocities that occurred, on both sides. organised purges occurred in territory captured by franco's forces so they could consolidate their future regime.[16] mass executions on a lesser scale also took place in areas controlled by the republicans,[17] with the participation of local authorities varying from location to location.[18][19]

  • background
  • military coup
  • combatants
  • foreign involvement
  • course of the war
  • evacuation of children
  • financing
  • death toll
  • atrocities
  • social revolution
  • art and propaganda
  • consequences
  • timeline
  • political parties and organisations
  • see also
  • notes
  • references
  • further reading
  • external links

Spanish Civil War
Part of the interwar period
Infobox collage for Spanish Civil War.jpg
Clockwise from top-left: members of the XI International Brigade at the Battle of Belchite; Bf 109 with Nationalist markings; bombing of an airfield in Spanish Sahara; Republican soldiers at the Siege of the Alcázar; Nationalist soldiers operating an anti-aircraft gun; HMS Royal Oak in an incursion around Gibraltar
Date17 July 1936 – 1 April 1939
(2 years, 8 months, 2 weeks and 1 day)
Location
Result

Nationalist victory

Belligerents

Republicans

Nationalists

Commanders and leaders
Strength
1936 strength:[1]
  • 446,800 combatants[2]
  • 31 ships
  • 12 submarines
  • 13,000 Sailors
1938 strength:[3]
  • 450,000 infantry
  • 350 aircraft
  • 200 tanks

59,380 international volunteers
3,015 Soviet technicians
772 Soviet pilots
1936 strength:[4]
  • 58,000 Army
  • 68,500 Gendarmes
  • 16 operational ships
  • 7,000 Sailors[5]
1938 strength:[6]
  • 600,000 infantry
  • 600 aircraft
  • 290 tanks

Casualties and losses
175,000 killed in action[7]
100,000–130,000 civilians killed inside the Francoist zone[8]
110,000 killed in action[7]
50,000 civilians killed inside the Republican zone[9]
149,213–2,000,000 total killed[note 1]
Events leading to World War II
  1. Treaty of Versailles 1919
  2. Polish-Soviet War 1919
  3. Treaty of Trianon 1920
  4. Treaty of Rapallo 1920
  5. Franco-Polish alliance 1921
  6. March on Rome 1922
  7. Corfu incident 1923
  8. Occupation of the Ruhr 1923–1925
  9. Mein Kampf 1925
  10. Pacification of Libya 1923–1932
  11. Dawes Plan 1924
  12. Locarno Treaties 1925
  13. Young Plan 1929
  14. Great Depression 1929–1941
  15. Japanese invasion of Manchuria 1931
  16. Pacification of Manchukuo 1931–1942
  17. January 28 Incident 1932
  18. World Disarmament Conference 1932–1934
  19. Defense of the Great Wall 1933
  20. Battle of Rehe 1933
  21. Nazis' rise to power in Germany 1933
  22. Tanggu Truce 1933
  23. Italo-Soviet Pact 1933
  24. Inner Mongolian Campaign 1933–1936
  25. German–Polish Non-Aggression Pact 1934
  26. Franco-Soviet Treaty of Mutual Assistance 1935
  27. Soviet–Czechoslovakia Treaty of Mutual Assistance 1935
  28. He–Umezu Agreement 1935
  29. Anglo-German Naval Agreement 1935
  30. December 9th Movement
  31. Second Italo-Ethiopian War 1935–1936
  32. Spanish Civil War 1936–1939
  33. Anti-Comintern Pact 1936
  34. Suiyuan Campaign 1936
  35. Xi'an Incident 1936
  36. Second Sino-Japanese War 1937–1945
  37. USS Panay incident 1937
  38. Anschluss Mar. 1938
  39. May crisis May 1938
  40. Battle of Lake Khasan July–Aug. 1938
  41. Undeclared German-Czechoslovak War Sep. 1938
  42. Munich Agreement Sep. 1938
  43. First Vienna Award Nov. 1938
  44. German occupation of Czechoslovakia Mar. 1939
  45. German ultimatum to Lithuania Mar. 1939
  46. Slovak–Hungarian War Mar. 1939
  47. Final offensive of the Spanish Civil War Mar.–Apr. 1939
  48. Danzig Crisis Mar.–Aug. 1939
  49. British guarantee to Poland Mar. 1939
  50. Italian invasion of Albania Apr. 1939
  51. Soviet–British–French Moscow negotiations Apr.–Aug. 1939
  52. Pact of Steel May 1939
  53. Battles of Khalkhin Gol May–Sep. 1939
  54. Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact Aug. 1939
  55. Invasion of Poland Sep. 1939

The Spanish Civil War (Spanish: Guerra Civil Española)[note 2] was a civil war in Spain fought from 1936 to 1939. Republicans loyal to the left-leaning Second Spanish Republic, in alliance with anarchists, of the communist and syndicalist variety, fought against a revolt by the Nationalists, an alliance of Falangists, monarchists, conservatives and Catholics, led by a military group among whom General Francisco Franco soon achieved a preponderant role. Due to the international political climate at the time, the war had many facets and was variously viewed as class struggle, a war of religion, a struggle between dictatorship and republican democracy, between revolution and counterrevolution, and between fascism and communism.[10] It has been frequently called the "dress rehearsal" for World War II.[11] The Nationalists won the war, which ended in early 1939, and ruled Spain until Franco's death in November 1975.

The war began after a pronunciamiento (a declaration of military opposition) against the Republican government by a group of generals of the Spanish Republican Armed Forces, originally under the leadership of José Sanjurjo. The government at the time was a coalition of Republicans, supported in the Cortes by communist and socialist parties, under the leadership of centre-left President Manuel Azaña.[12][13] The Nationalist group was supported by a number of conservative groups, including CEDA, monarchists, including both the opposing Alfonsists and the religious conservative Carlists, and the FE de las JONS, a fascist political party.[14] After the deaths of Sanjurjo, Emilio Mola and Manuel Goded Llopis, Franco emerged as the remaining leader of the Nationalist side.

The coup was supported by military units in the Spanish protectorate in Morocco, Pamplona, Burgos, Zaragoza, Valladolid, Cádiz, Córdoba, and Seville. However, rebelling units in some important cities—such as Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia, Bilbao, and Málaga—did not gain control, and those cities remained under the control of the government. This left Spain militarily and politically divided. The Nationalists and the Republican government fought for control of the country. The Nationalist forces received munitions, soldiers, and air support from Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany, while the Republican side received support from the Soviet Union and Mexico. Other countries, such as the United Kingdom, France, and the United States, continued to recognise the Republican government, but followed an official policy of non-intervention. Despite this policy, tens of thousands of citizens from non-interventionist countries directly participated in the conflict. They fought mostly in the pro-Republican International Brigades, which also included several thousand exiles from pro-Nationalist regimes.

The Nationalists advanced from their strongholds in the south and west, capturing most of Spain's northern coastline in 1937. They also besieged Madrid and the area to its south and west for much of the war. After much of Catalonia was captured in 1938 and 1939, and Madrid cut off from Barcelona, the Republican military position became hopeless. Following the fall without resistance of Barcelona in January 1939, the recognition of the Francoist regime by France and the United Kingdom in February 1939, and internal conflict between Republican factions in Madrid in March 1939, Franco entered the capital and declared victory on 1 April 1939. Hundreds of thousands of Spaniards fled to refugee camps in southern France.[15][15] Those associated with the losing Republicans who stayed were persecuted by the victorious Nationalists. Franco established a dictatorship in which all right-wing parties were fused into the structure of the Franco regime.[14]

The war became notable for the passion and political division it inspired and for the many atrocities that occurred, on both sides. Organised purges occurred in territory captured by Franco's forces so they could consolidate their future regime.[16] Mass executions on a lesser scale also took place in areas controlled by the Republicans,[17] with the participation of local authorities varying from location to location.[18][19]