South Ossetia

  • republic of south ossetia – the state of alania


    • Республикӕ Хуссар Ирыстон / Паддзахад Аллонстон (ossetian)
      respublikæ xussar iryston / paddzaxad allonston

    • ცხინვალის რეგიონი (georgian)
      tskhinvalis regioni

    • Республика Южная Осетия / Государство Алания (russian)
      respublika yuzhnaya osetiya / gosudarstvo alaniya
    flag of south ossetia
    flag
    emblem of south ossetia
    emblem
    anthem: national anthem of south ossetia
    national anthem of south ossetia – Республикӕ Хуссар Ирыстоны Паддзахадон Гимн
    south ossetia (green), georgia, and abkhazia (light grey).
    south ossetia (green), georgia, and abkhazia (light grey).
    map of south ossetia.
    map of south ossetia.
    capitaltskhinvali
    42°14′n 43°58′e / 42°14′n 43°58′e / 42.233; 43.967
    official languages
    • ossetiana
    • russiana
    recognised regional languagesgeorgian
    governmentsemi-presidential republic
    • president
    anatoliy bibilov
    • prime minister
    erik pukhayev
    legislatureparliament
    independence from georgia
    • formed as part of ussr
    20 september 1990[1]
    • full independence
    21 december 1991
    • recognized
    26 august 2008 (limited)
    area
    • total
    3,900 km2 (1,500 sq mi)
    • water (%)
    negligible
    population
    • 2015 census
    53,532[2]
    • density
    13.7/km2 (35.5/sq mi)
    gdp (nominal)2017[3] estimate
    • total
    us$0.1 billion
    • per capita
    us$2,000
    currencyrussian ruble (rub)
    time zoneutc+3 (msk)
    driving sideright
    calling code+995 34
    1. ossetian and russian languages are official languages[4]

    south ossetia (ə/, less commonly ə/),[5] officially the republic of south ossetia – the state of alania,[6][7] or the tskhinvali region, is a de facto sovereign state and disputed territory in the south caucasus, in the northern part of the internationally recognised georgian territory. it has a population of 53,000 people who live in an area of 3,900 km2, south of the russian caucasus, with 30,000 living in tskhinvali. the separatist polity, republic of south ossetia (or the state of alania), is recognized as a state by russia, venezuela, nicaragua, nauru, and syria.[8][9][10][11][12][13] while georgia lacks control over south ossetia, the georgian government and most members of the united nations consider the territory part of georgia, whose constitution designates the area as "the former autonomous district of south ossetia", in reference to the former soviet autonomous oblast disbanded in 1990.[14]

    georgia does not recognize the existence of south ossetia as a political entity, and therefore its territory does not correspond to any georgian administrative area (although provisional administration of south ossetia was created by the georgian authorities as a transitional measure leading to the settlement of south ossetia's status), with most of the territory included into shida kartli region. the area is often informally referred to as the legally undefined tskhinvali region[nb 1] in georgia and in international organisations when neutrality is deemed necessary.

    south ossetia declared independence from the georgian soviet socialist republic in 1991. the georgian government responded by abolishing south ossetia's autonomy and trying to re-establish its control over the region by force.[15] the crisis escalation led to the 1991–92 south ossetia war.[16] georgian fighting against those controlling south ossetia occurred on two other occasions, in 2004 and 2008.[17] the latter conflict led to the russo–georgian war, during which ossetian and russian forces gained full de facto control of the territory of the former south ossetian autonomous oblast. in the wake of the 2008 war, georgia and a significant part of the international community consider south ossetia to be occupied by the russian military.

    south ossetia relies heavily on military, political and financial aid from russia.[18][19][20]

    south ossetia, transnistria, artsakh, and abkhazia are sometimes referred to as post-soviet "frozen conflict" zones.[21][22]

  • history
  • geography and climate
  • political status
  • politics
  • demographics
  • economy
  • culture
  • gallery
  • see also
  • notes
  • references
  • external links

Republic of South Ossetia – the State of Alania


  • Республикӕ Хуссар Ирыстон / Паддзахад Аллонстон (Ossetian)
    Respublikæ Xussar Iryston / Paddzaxad Allonston

  • ცხინვალის რეგიონი (Georgian)
    Tskhinvalis regioni

  • Республика Южная Осетия / Государство Алания (Russian)
    Respublika Yuzhnaya Osetiya / Gosudarstvo Alaniya
Anthem: National Anthem of South Ossetia
National Anthem of South Ossetia – Республикӕ Хуссар Ирыстоны Паддзахадон Гимн
South Ossetia (green), Georgia, and Abkhazia (light grey).
South Ossetia (green), Georgia, and Abkhazia (light grey).
Map of South Ossetia.
Map of South Ossetia.
CapitalTskhinvali
42°14′N 43°58′E / 42°14′N 43°58′E / 42.233; 43.967
Official languages
Recognised regional languagesGeorgian
GovernmentSemi-presidential republic
• President
Anatoliy Bibilov
Erik Pukhayev
LegislatureParliament
Independence from Georgia
• Formed as part of USSR
20 September 1990[1]
• Full independence
21 December 1991
• Recognized
26 August 2008 (limited)
Area
• Total
3,900 km2 (1,500 sq mi)
• Water (%)
negligible
Population
• 2015 census
53,532[2]
• Density
13.7/km2 (35.5/sq mi)
GDP (nominal)2017[3] estimate
• Total
US$0.1 billion
• Per capita
US$2,000
CurrencyRussian ruble (RUB)
Time zoneUTC+3 (MSK)
Driving sideright
Calling code+995 34
  1. Ossetian and Russian languages are official languages[4]

South Ossetia (ə/, less commonly ə/),[5] officially the Republic of South Ossetia – the State of Alania,[6][7] or the Tskhinvali Region, is a de facto sovereign state and disputed territory in the South Caucasus, in the northern part of the internationally recognised Georgian territory. It has a population of 53,000 people who live in an area of 3,900 km2, south of the Russian Caucasus, with 30,000 living in Tskhinvali. The separatist polity, Republic of South Ossetia (or the State of Alania), is recognized as a state by Russia, Venezuela, Nicaragua, Nauru, and Syria.[8][9][10][11][12][13] While Georgia lacks control over South Ossetia, the Georgian government and most members of the United Nations consider the territory part of Georgia, whose constitution designates the area as "the former autonomous district of South Ossetia", in reference to the former Soviet autonomous oblast disbanded in 1990.[14]

Georgia does not recognize the existence of South Ossetia as a political entity, and therefore its territory does not correspond to any Georgian administrative area (although Provisional Administration of South Ossetia was created by the Georgian authorities as a transitional measure leading to the settlement of South Ossetia's status), with most of the territory included into Shida Kartli region. The area is often informally referred to as the legally undefined Tskhinvali Region[nb 1] in Georgia and in international organisations when neutrality is deemed necessary.

South Ossetia declared independence from the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic in 1991. The Georgian government responded by abolishing South Ossetia's autonomy and trying to re-establish its control over the region by force.[15] The crisis escalation led to the 1991–92 South Ossetia War.[16] Georgian fighting against those controlling South Ossetia occurred on two other occasions, in 2004 and 2008.[17] The latter conflict led to the Russo–Georgian War, during which Ossetian and Russian forces gained full de facto control of the territory of the former South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast. In the wake of the 2008 war, Georgia and a significant part of the international community consider South Ossetia to be occupied by the Russian military.

South Ossetia relies heavily on military, political and financial aid from Russia.[18][19][20]

South Ossetia, Transnistria, Artsakh, and Abkhazia are sometimes referred to as post-Soviet "frozen conflict" zones.[21][22]