Slovakia

Slovak Republic

Slovenská republika  (Slovak)
Anthem: "Nad Tatrou sa blýska"
(English: "Lightning Over the Tatras")
Location of Slovakia (dark green) – in Europe (green & dark grey) – in the European Union (green)  –  [Legend]
Location of Slovakia (dark green)

– in Europe (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union (green)  –  [Legend]

Location of Slovakia in the world
Location of Slovakia in the world
Capital
and largest city
Bratislava
48°09′N 17°07′E / 48°09′N 17°07′E / 48.150; 17.117
Official languagesSlovak
Ethnic groups
(2011[1])
Demonym(s)Slovak
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary republic
• President
Zuzana Čaputová
Peter Pellegrini
• Speaker
Andrej Danko
LegislatureNational Council
Independence
• 
28 October 1918
23 November 1938
• First Slovak Republic (client state of Nazi Germany)
14 March 1939
1 January 1969
• Slovak Republic (change of name within Czechoslovak Federation)
1 March 1990
1 January 1993a
1 May 2004
Area
• Total
49,035 km2 (18,933 sq mi) (127th)
• Water (%)
0.0789
Population
• 2018 estimate
Increase 5,450,421[2] (116th)
• 2011 census
5,397,036
• Density
111/km2 (287.5/sq mi) (88th)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
$201.799 billion[3] (68th)
• Per capita
$37,021[3] (37th)
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
$109.863 billion[3] (61st)
• Per capita
$20,155[3] (41st)
Gini (2017)Positive decrease 23.2[4]
low · 8th
HDI (2017)Increase 0.855[5]
very high · 38th
CurrencyEuro () (EUR)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+2 (CEST)
Driving sideright
Calling code+421c
ISO 3166 codeSK
Internet TLD.sk and .eu
  1. Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia; see Velvet Divorce.
  2. Slovak koruna before 2009.
  3. Shared code 42 with Czech Republic until 1997.

Slovakia (k-/ (About this soundlisten);[6][7] Slovak: Slovensko [ˈslɔʋɛnskɔ] (About this soundlisten)), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovak: Slovenská republika, About this soundlisten ),[8] is a landlocked country in Central Europe[9][10]. It is bordered by Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east, Hungary to the south, Austria to the west, and the Czech Republic to the northwest. Slovakia's territory spans about 49,000 square kilometres (19,000 sq mi) and is mostly mountainous. The population is over 5.6 million and consists mostly of Slovaks. The capital and largest city is Bratislava, and the second-largest city is Košice. The official language is Slovak.

The Slavs arrived in the territory of present-day Slovakia in the 5th and 6th centuries. In the 7th century they played a significant role in the creation of Samo's Empire and in the 9th century established the Principality of Nitra, which was later conquered by the Principality of Moravia to establish Great Moravia. In the 10th century, after the dissolution of Great Moravia, the territory was integrated into the Principality of Hungary, which would become the Kingdom of Hungary in 1000.[11] In 1241 and 1242, much of the territory was destroyed by the Mongols during their invasion of Central and Eastern Europe. The area was recovered largely thanks to Béla IV of Hungary who also settled Germans who became an important ethnic group in the area, especially in what are today parts of central and eastern Slovakia.[12] After World War I and the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Czechoslovak National Council established Czechoslovakia (1918–1939). A separate (First) Slovak Republic (1939–1945) existed during World War II as a totalitarian, clero-fascist one-party client state of Nazi Germany. At the end of World War II, Czechoslovakia was re-established as an independent country. After a coup in 1948 Czechoslovakia became a totalitarian one-party socialist state under a communist administration, during which the country was part of the Soviet led Eastern Bloc. Attempts to liberalize communism in Czechoslovakia culminated in the Prague Spring, which was crushed by the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia in August 1968. In 1989, the Velvet Revolution ended the Communist rule in Czechoslovakia peacefully. Slovakia became an independent state on 1 January 1993 after the peaceful dissolution of Czechoslovakia, sometimes known as the Velvet Divorce.

Slovakia is a high-income advanced economy[13][14] with a very high Human Development Index,[15][16] a very high standard of living and performs favourably in measurements of civil liberties, press freedom, internet freedom, democratic governance and peacefulness. The country maintains a combination of a market economy with a comprehensive social security system. Citizens of Slovakia are provided with universal health care, free education and one of the longest paid parental leaves in the OECD.[17] The country joined the European Union on 1 May 2004 and joined the Eurozone on 1 January 2009.[18] Slovakia is also a member of the Schengen Area, NATO, the United Nations, the OECD, the WTO, CERN, the OSCE, the Council of Europe and the Visegrád Group. As part of Eurozone, Slovak legal tender is the euro, the world's 2nd-most-traded currency. Slovakia is the world's largest per-capita car producer with a total of 1,090,000 cars manufactured in the country in 2018 alone[19] and the 6th largest car producer in the European Union, representing 43% of Slovakia's total industrial output.

Etymology

The first written mention of name Slovakia is in 1586 (German: In Liptau, bei der Stadt Sankt Nikolaus in der Slovakia).[20] It derives from the Czech word Slováky; previous German forms were Windischen landen and Windenland (the 15th century).[20] The native name Slovensko (1791) derives from an older name of Slovaks Sloven what may indicate its origin before the 15th century.[20] The original meaning was geographic (not political), since Slovakia was a part of the multiethnic Kingdom of Hungary[note 1] and did not form a separate administrative unit in this period.