Secondary education covers two phases on the
Since 1989, education has been seen as a basic human right for a child; Article 28, of the
In classical and medieval times secondary education was provided by the church for the sons of nobility and to boys preparing for universities and the priesthood. As trade required navigational and scientific skills the church reluctantly expanded the curriculum and widened the intake. With the
Secondary education is in most countries the phase in the education continuum responsible for the development of the young during their adolescence, the most rapid phase of their physical, mental and emotional growth. It is at this very education level, particularly in its first cycle, where values and attitudes formed at primary school are more firmly ingrained alongside the acquisition of knowledge and skills.— From UNESCO, Secondary Education Reform: Towards a Convergence of Knowledge Acquisition and Skills Development, 2005
Within this system, Levels 1 and 2 – that is, primary education and lower secondary – together form
The start of lower secondary education is characterised by the transition from the single-class-teacher, who delivers all content to a cohort of pupils, to one where content is delivered by a series of subject specialists. Its educational aim is to complete provision of basic education (thereby completing the delivery of basic skills) and to lay the foundations for lifelong learning.
Lower secondary education is likely to show these criteria:
The end of lower secondary education often coincides with the end of compulsory education in countries where that exists.
(Upper) secondary education starts on the completion of basic education, which also is defined as completion of lower secondary education. The educational focus is varied according to the student's interests and future direction. Education at this level is usually voluntary.
(Upper) secondary education is likely to show these criteria:
More subjects may be dropped, and increased specialism occurs. Completion of (upper) secondary education provides the entry requirements to Level 5 tertiary education, the entry requirements to technical or vocational education (Level 4, non tertiary course), or direct entry into the workplace.
In 2012 the
Terminology for secondary schools varies by country, and the exact meaning of any of these varies.[