Qatar

State of Qatar

دولة قطر (Arabic)
Dawlat Qaṭar
Anthem: السلام الأميري
As-Salām al-ʾAmīrī  (transliteration)
"Peace to the Amir"

Location and extent of Qatar (dark green) on the Arabian Peninsula.
Location and extent of Qatar (dark green) on the Arabian Peninsula.
Location of Qatar
Capital
and largest city
Doha
25°18′N 51°31′E / 25°18′N 51°31′E / 25.300; 51.517
Official languagesArabic
Common languagesEnglish
Ethnic groups
(2015[1])
11.6% Qatari
88.4% non-Qatari
Religion
Islam
Demonym(s)Qatari
GovernmentHereditary monarchy[2]
• Emir
Tamim bin Hamad
Abdullah bin Nasser
LegislatureConsultative Assembly
Establishment
18 December 1878
• Declared independence

1 September 1971
• Independence from the United Kingdom

3 September 1971
Area
• Total
11,581 km2 (4,471 sq mi) (158th)
• Water (%)
0.8
Population
• 2017 estimate
2,641,669[3] (140th)
• 2010 census
1,699,435[4] (148th)
• Density
176/km2 (455.8/sq mi) (76th)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$357.338 billion[5] (51st)
• Per capita
$128,702[5] (1st)
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$183.807 billion[5] (56th)
• Per capita
$66,202[5] (6th)
Gini (2007)41.1[6]
medium
HDI (2018)Steady 0.848[7]
very high · 41st
CurrencyRiyal (QAR)
Time zoneUTC+3 (AST)
Driving sideright[8]
Calling code+974
ISO 3166 codeQA
Internet TLD

Qatar (ɑːr/,[9] ɑːr/ (About this soundlisten), ər/ or ɑːr/ (About this soundlisten);[10] Arabic: قطرQaṭar [ˈqɑtˤɑr]; local vernacular pronunciation: [ˈɡɪtˤɑr]),[11][12] officially the State of Qatar (Arabic: دولة قطرDawlat Qaṭar), is a country located in Western Asia, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula.Whether the sovereign state should be regarded as a constitutional monarchy or an absolute monarchy is disputed.[13][14][15][16][17][18] Its sole land border is with neighbouring Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) monarchy Saudi Arabia to the south, with the rest of its territory surrounded by the Persian Gulf. The Gulf of Bahrain, an inlet of the Persian Gulf, separates Qatar from nearby Bahrain.

In early 2017, Qatar's total population was 2.6 million: 313,000 Qatari citizens and 2.3 million expatriates.[19] Islam is the official religion of Qatar.[20] The country has the highest per capita income in the world. Qatar is classified by the UN as a country of very high human development and is widely regarded as the most advanced Arab state for human development.[21] Qatar is a high-income economy, backed by the world's third-largest natural gas reserves and oil reserves.[22]

Qatar has been ruled by the House of Thani since Mohammed bin Thani signed a treaty with the British in 1868 that recognised its separate status. Following Ottoman rule, Qatar became a British protectorate in the early 20th century until gaining independence in 1971. In 2003, the constitution was overwhelmingly approved in a referendum, with almost 98% in favour.[23][24] In the 21st century, Qatar emerged as a significant power in the Arab world both through its globally expanding media group, Al Jazeera Media Network, and reportedly supporting several rebel groups financially during the Arab Spring.[25][26][27] For its size, Qatar wields disproportionate influence in the world, and has been identified as a middle power.[28][29] Qatar is currently the subject of a diplomatic and economic embargo by Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Bahrain, and Egypt, which began in June 2017. Saudi Arabia has proposed the construction of the Salwa Canal, which would run along the Saudi-Qatar border, effectively turning Qatar into an island.

Etymology

Pliny the Elder, a Roman writer, documented the earliest account pertaining to the inhabitants of the peninsula around the mid-first century AD, referring to them as the Catharrei, a designation which may have derived from the name of a prominent local settlement.[30][31] A century later, Ptolemy produced the first known map to depict the peninsula, referring to it as Catara.[31][32] The map also referenced a town named "Cadara" to the east of the peninsula.[33] The term 'Catara' (inhabitants, Cataraei)[34] was exclusively used until the 18th century, after which 'Katara' emerged as the most commonly recognised spelling.[33] Eventually, after several variations – 'Katr', 'Kattar' and 'Guttur' – the modern derivative Qatar was adopted as the country's name.[35]

In Standard Arabic, the name is pronounced [ˈqɑtˤɑr], while in the local dialect it is [ˈɡitˤar].[11]