Puri

Puri
City
Montage of Puri City
Montage of Puri City
Nickname(s): 
Spiritual City, Sri Jagannatha Dhama
Puri is located in Odisha
Puri
Puri
Puri is located in India
Puri
Puri
Puri is located in Asia
Puri
Puri
Coordinates: 19°48′38″N 85°49′53″E / 19°48′38″N 85°49′53″E / 19.81056; 85.83139

Puri (About this soundlisten ) is a city and a Municipality in the state of Odisha in eastern India. It is the district headquarters of Puri district and is situated on the Bay of Bengal, 60 kilometres (37 mi) south of the state capital of Bhubaneswar. It is also known as Sri Jagannatha Dhama after the 12th-century Jagannatha Temple located in the city. It is one of the original Char Dham pilgrimage sites for Hindus.

Puri is known by several names since the ancient times, and was locally known as "Sri Kshetra" and Lord Jagannatha temple is known as "Badadeula". Puri and the Jagannatha Temple were invaded 18 times by Muslim rulers, from the 4th century AD till the early 19th century with the objective of looting the treasures of the temple. Odisha, including Puri and its temple, were part of British India from 1803 till India attained independence in August 1947. Even though princely states do not exist in India today, the heirs of the Gajapati Dynasty of Khurda still perform the ritual duties of the temple. The temple town has many Hindu religious mathas or monasteries.

The economy of Puri is dependent on the religious importance of the Jagannatha Temple to the extent of nearly 80 percent. The 24 festivals, including 13 major ones, held every year in the temple complex contribute to the economy; Ratha Yatra and its related festivals are the most important which are attended by millions of people every year. Sand art and applique art are some of the important crafts of the city.

Puri has been chosen as one of the heritage cities for Heritage City Development and Augmentation Yojana (HRIDAY) scheme of Government of India.

Geography and climate

Geography

The Atharanala Bridge dating back to the 16th century at the entrance of Puri

Puri, located on the east coast of India on the Bay of Bengal, is in the centre of the Puri district. It is delimited by the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, the Mauza Sipaurubilla on the west, Mauza Gopinathpur in the north and Mauza Balukhand in the east. It is within the 67 kilometres (42 mi) coastal stretch of sandy beaches that extends between Chilika Lake and the south of Puri city. However, the administrative jurisdiction of the Puri Municipality extends over an area of 16.3268 square kilometres (6.3038 sq mi) spread over 30 wards, which includes a shore line of 5 kilometres (3.1 mi).[1]

Puri is in the coastal delta of the Mahanadi River on the shores of the Bay of Bengal. In the ancient days it was near to Sisupalgarh (also known as "Ashokan Tosali"). Then the land was drained by a tributary of the Bhargavi River, a branch of the Mahanadi River. This branch underwent a meandering course creating many arteries altering the estuary, and formed many sand hills. These sand hills could be cut through by the streams. Because of the sand hills, the Bhargavi River, flowing to the south of Puri, moved away towards the Chilika Lake. This shift also resulted in the creation of two lagoons, known as Sar and Samang, on the eastern and northern parts of Puri respectively. Sar lagoon has a length of 5 miles (8.0 km) in an east-west direction and a width of 2 miles (3.2 km) in north-south direction. The estuary of the Bhargavi River has a shallow depth of just 5 feet (1.5 m) and the process of siltation continues. According to a 15th-century Odia writer Saraladasa, the bed of the unnamed stream that flowed at the base of the Blue Mountain or Neelachal was filled up. Katakarajavamsa, a 16th-century chronicle (c.1600), attributes filling up of the bed of the river which flowed through the present Grand Road, as done during the reign of King Narasimha II (1278–1308) of Eastern Ganga dynasty.[2]

Climate

According to the Köppen–Geiger climate classification system the climate of Puri is classified as Aw (Tropical savanna climate). The city has moderate and tropical climate. Humidity is fairly high throughout the year. The temperature during summer touches a maximum of 36 °C (97 °F) and during winter it is 17 °C (63 °F). The average annual rainfall is 1,337 millimetres (52.6 in) and the average annual temperature is 26.9 °C (80.4 °F). The weather data is given in the following table.[3][4]

Climate data for Puri
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 26.8
(80.2)
28.4
(83.1)
30.2
(86.4)
31.4
(88.5)
32.5
(90.5)
31.8
(89.2)
30.6
(87.1)
31
(88)
31.6
(88.9)
31.7
(89.1)
29.4
(84.9)
27.2
(81.0)
30.2
(86.4)
Average low °C (°F) 17.7
(63.9)
20.4
(68.7)
24.1
(75.4)
25.9
(78.6)
27
(81)
27.1
(80.8)
26.6
(79.9)
26.5
(79.7)
26.5
(79.7)
24.8
(76.6)
20.4
(68.7)
17.1
(62.8)
23.7
(74.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 9
(0.4)
20
(0.8)
15
(0.6)
11
(0.4)
49
(1.9)
182
(7.2)
267
(10.5)
310
(12.2)
245
(9.6)
161
(6.3)
63
(2.5)
5
(0.2)
1,337
(52.6)
Source: [4]