Portugal

  • portuguese republic

    república portuguesa (portuguese)
    flag of portugal
    flag
    coat of arms of portugal
    coat of arms
    anthem: "a portuguesa"
    eu-portugal (orthographic projection).svg
    eu-portugal with islands circled.svg
    location of portugal (dark green)

    – in europe (green & dark grey)
    – in the european union (green)

    capital
    and largest city
    lisbon
    38°46′n 9°9′w / 38°46′n 9°9′w / 38.767; -9.150
    official language
    and national language
    portuguese
    recognised
    regional language
    mirandese[note 1]
    ethnic groups
    (2018)[note 2][3]
    • 95.3%  portuguese
    • 4.7% others
    religion
    (2011)
    • 81.0% roman catholic
    • 3.3% other christians
    • 0.6% other religion
    • 6.8% no religion
    • 8.3% undeclared
    demonym(s)portuguese
    governmentunitary semi-presidential constitutional republic[4]
    • president
    marcelo rebelo de sousa
    • prime minister
    antónio costa
    • assembly president
    eduardo ferro rodrigues
    legislatureassembly of the republic
    establishment
    • foundation
    868
    • re-founding
    1095
    • sovereignty
    24 june 1128
    • kingdom
    25 july 1139
    • restoration
    1 december 1640
    • first constitution
    23 september 1822
    • republic
    5 october 1910
    • democratization
    25 april 1974
    • present constitution
    25 april 1976[note 3]
    • eec accession
    1 january 1986
    area
    • total
    92,212 km2 (35,603 sq mi)[5] (109th)
    • water (%)
    0.5
    population
    • 2018 estimate
    10,276,617[6]
    • 2011 census
    10,562,178[7]
    • density
    114.5[8]/km2 (296.6/sq mi)
    gdp (ppp)2020 estimate
    • total
    increase $358.070 billion[9]
    • per capita
    increase $34,935[9]
    gdp (nominal)2020 estimate
    • total
    increase $243.229 billion[9]
    • per capita
    increase $23,731[9]
    gini (2018)positive decrease 31.9[10]
    medium
    hdi (2018)increase 0.850[11]
    very high · 40th
    currencyeuro[note 4] () (eur)
    time zoneutc (wet)
    utc−1 (atlantic/azores)
    • summer (dst)
    utc+1 (west)
    utc (atlantic/azores)
    note: mainland portugal and madeira use wet/west, the azores are 1 hour behind.
    date formatdd/mm/yyyy (ce)
    driving sideright
    calling code+351
    iso 3166 codept
    internet tld.pt
    1. ^ mirandese, spoken in some villages of the municipality of miranda do douro, was officially recognized in 1999 (lei n.° 7/99 de 29 de janeiro),[1] awarding it an official right-of-use.[2] portuguese sign language is also recognized.
    2. ^ by country of citizenship
    3. ^ portuguese constitution adopted in 1976 with several subsequent minor revisions, between 1982 and 2005.
    4. ^ before 2002, the escudo.

    portugal (portuguese: [puɾtuˈɣal]), officially the portuguese republic (portuguese: república portuguesa [ʁɛˈpuβlikɐ puɾtuˈɣezɐ]),[note 5] is a country located mostly on the iberian peninsula, in southwestern europe. it is the westernmost sovereign state of mainland europe, being bordered to the west and south by the atlantic ocean and to the north and east by spain. its territory also includes the atlantic archipelagos of the azores and madeira, both autonomous regions with their own regional governments.

    portugal is the oldest nation state on the iberian peninsula and one of the oldest in europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times. the pre-celtic people, celts and romans were followed by the invasions of the suebi and visigoths germanic peoples. after the muslim conquest of the iberian peninsula, most of its territory was part of al-andalus. portugal as a country was established during the early christian reconquista. founded in 868, the county of portugal gained prominence after the battle of são mamede (1128). the kingdom of portugal was later proclaimed following the battle of ourique (1139), and independence from león was recognised by the treaty of zamora (1143).[12]

    in the 15th and 16th centuries, portugal established the first global empire, becoming one of the world's major economic, political and military powers.[13][14][15] during this period, today referred to as the age of discovery, portuguese explorers pioneered maritime exploration, notably under royal patronage of prince henry the navigator and king john ii, with such notable voyages as bartolomeu dias' sailing beyond the cape of good hope (1488), vasco da gama's discovery of the sea route to india (1497–98) and the european discovery of what would become brazil (1500). during this time portugal monopolized the spice trade, divided the world into hemispheres of dominion with castille, and the empire expanded with military campaigns in asia. however, events such as the 1755 lisbon earthquake, the country's occupation during the napoleonic wars, and the independence of brazil (1822) erased to a great extent portugal's prior opulence.[16]

    after the 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy, the democratic but unstable portuguese first republic was established, later being superseded by the estado novo authoritarian regime. democracy was restored after the carnation revolution (1974), ending the portuguese colonial war. shortly after, independence was granted to almost all its overseas territories. the handover of macau to china (1999) marked the end of what can be considered the longest-lived colonial empire.

    portugal has left a profound cultural, architectural and linguistic influence across the globe, with a legacy of around 250 million portuguese speakers, and many portuguese-based creoles. it is a developed country with an advanced economy and high living standards.[17][18][19] additionally, it is highly placed in rankings of moral freedom (2nd), peacefulness (3rd), democracy (8th),[20] press freedom (12th), stability (15th), social progress (18th), and prosperity (26th). a member of the united nations and the european union, portugal was also one of the founding members of nato, the eurozone, the oecd, and the community of portuguese language countries.

  • etymology
  • history
  • geography
  • government and administration
  • economy
  • demographics
  • culture
  • see also
  • notes
  • references
  • external links

Portuguese Republic

República Portuguesa (Portuguese)
Anthem: "A Portuguesa"
EU-Portugal (orthographic projection).svg
EU-Portugal with islands circled.svg
Location of Portugal (dark green)

– in Europe (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union (green)

Capital
and largest city
Lisbon
38°46′N 9°9′W / 38°46′N 9°9′W / 38.767; -9.150
Official language
and national language
Portuguese
Recognised
regional language
Mirandese[note 1]
Ethnic groups
Religion
(2011)
Demonym(s)Portuguese
GovernmentUnitary semi-presidential constitutional republic[4]
• President
Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa
António Costa
Eduardo Ferro Rodrigues
LegislatureAssembly of the Republic
Establishment
868
1095
24 June 1128
• Kingdom
25 July 1139
1 December 1640
23 September 1822
• Republic
5 October 1910
25 April 1974
25 April 1976[note 3]
1 January 1986
Area
• Total
92,212 km2 (35,603 sq mi)[5] (109th)
• Water (%)
0.5
Population
• 2018 estimate
10,276,617[6]
• 2011 census
10,562,178[7]
• Density
114.5[8]/km2 (296.6/sq mi)
GDP (PPP)2020 estimate
• Total
Increase $358.070 billion[9]
• Per capita
Increase $34,935[9]
GDP (nominal)2020 estimate
• Total
Increase $243.229 billion[9]
• Per capita
Increase $23,731[9]
Gini (2018)Positive decrease 31.9[10]
medium
HDI (2018)Increase 0.850[11]
very high · 40th
CurrencyEuro[note 4] () (EUR)
Time zoneUTC (WET)
UTC−1 (Atlantic/Azores)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+1 (WEST)
UTC (Atlantic/Azores)
Note: Mainland Portugal and Madeira use WET/WEST, the Azores are 1 hour behind.
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy (CE)
Driving sideright
Calling code+351
ISO 3166 codePT
Internet TLD.pt
  1. ^ Mirandese, spoken in some villages of the municipality of Miranda do Douro, was officially recognized in 1999 (Lei n.° 7/99 de 29 de Janeiro),[1] awarding it an official right-of-use.[2] Portuguese Sign Language is also recognized.
  2. ^ By country of citizenship
  3. ^ Portuguese Constitution adopted in 1976 with several subsequent minor revisions, between 1982 and 2005.
  4. ^ Before 2002, the escudo.

Portugal (Portuguese: [puɾtuˈɣal]), officially the Portuguese Republic (Portuguese: República Portuguesa [ʁɛˈpuβlikɐ puɾtuˈɣezɐ]),[note 5] is a country located mostly on the Iberian Peninsula, in southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost sovereign state of mainland Europe, being bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean and to the north and east by Spain. Its territory also includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, both autonomous regions with their own regional governments.

Portugal is the oldest nation state on the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times. The pre-Celtic people, Celts and Romans were followed by the invasions of the Suebi and Visigoths Germanic peoples. After the Muslim conquest of the Iberian Peninsula, most of its territory was part of Al-Andalus. Portugal as a country was established during the early Christian Reconquista. Founded in 868, the County of Portugal gained prominence after the Battle of São Mamede (1128). The Kingdom of Portugal was later proclaimed following the Battle of Ourique (1139), and independence from León was recognised by the Treaty of Zamora (1143).[12]

In the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal established the first global empire, becoming one of the world's major economic, political and military powers.[13][14][15] During this period, today referred to as the Age of Discovery, Portuguese explorers pioneered maritime exploration, notably under royal patronage of Prince Henry the Navigator and King John II, with such notable voyages as Bartolomeu Dias' sailing beyond the Cape of Good Hope (1488), Vasco da Gama's discovery of the sea route to India (1497–98) and the European discovery of what would become Brazil (1500). During this time Portugal monopolized the spice trade, divided the world into hemispheres of dominion with Castille, and the empire expanded with military campaigns in Asia. However, events such as the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, the country's occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, and the independence of Brazil (1822) erased to a great extent Portugal's prior opulence.[16]

After the 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy, the democratic but unstable Portuguese First Republic was established, later being superseded by the Estado Novo authoritarian regime. Democracy was restored after the Carnation Revolution (1974), ending the Portuguese Colonial War. Shortly after, independence was granted to almost all its overseas territories. The handover of Macau to China (1999) marked the end of what can be considered the longest-lived colonial empire.

Portugal has left a profound cultural, architectural and linguistic influence across the globe, with a legacy of around 250 million Portuguese speakers, and many Portuguese-based creoles. It is a developed country with an advanced economy and high living standards.[17][18][19] Additionally, it is highly placed in rankings of moral freedom (2nd), peacefulness (3rd), democracy (8th),[20] press freedom (12th), stability (15th), social progress (18th), and prosperity (26th). A member of the United Nations and the European Union, Portugal was also one of the founding members of NATO, the eurozone, the OECD, and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries.