Parent portals : Geography / Asia / India

India Portal


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Taj Mahal, Agra, India
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India (Hindi: Bhārat), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: Bhārat Gaṇarājya), is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives; its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia.

Modern humans arrived on the Indian subcontinent from Africa no later than 55,000 years ago.Their long occupation, initially in varying forms of isolation as hunter-gatherers, has made the region highly diverse, second only to Africa in human genetic diversity. Settled life emerged on the subcontinent in the western margins of the Indus river basin 9,000 years ago, evolving gradually into the Indus Valley Civilisation of the third millennium BCE.By 1200 BCE, an archaic form of Sanskrit, an Indo-European language, had diffused into India from the northwest, unfolding as the language of the Rigveda, and recording the dawning of Hinduism in India.The Dravidian languages of India were supplanted in the northern regions.By 400 BCE, stratification and exclusion by caste had emerged within Hinduism,and Buddhism and Jainism had arisen, proclaiming social orders unlinked to heredity.Early political consolidations gave rise to the loose-knit Maurya and Gupta Empires based in the Ganges Basin.Their collective era was suffused with wide-ranging creativity, but also marked by the declining status of women, and the incorporation of untouchability into an organised system of belief. In south India, the Middle kingdoms exported Dravidian-languages scripts and religious cultures to the kingdoms of southeast Asia.

Selected articles

Mysore is shown in west-central peninsular India with the Madras Presidency bordering it on the east, west, and south, with the Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean, and the Bay of Bengal surrounding the peninsula, and with Sri Lanka in the vicinity to the south-east
Map 1: Mysore and Coorg (along with the Kanara Coast) shown in a 1908 map from the Imperial Gazetteer of India

The political history of Mysore and Coorg (1565–1760) is the political history of the contiguous historical regions of Mysore state and Coorg province located on the Deccan Plateau in west-central peninsular India (Map 1). It begins with the fall of the Hindu Vijayanagara Empire in 1565 and ends just before the rise of Sultan Haidar Ali in 1761.

At the height of the Vijayanagara Empire (1350–1565), the Mysore and Coorg region was ruled by motley chieftains, or rajas ("little kings"). Each raja had dominion over a small area, and each supplied soldiers and annual tribute for the empire's needs. Soon after the empire's fall and the subsequent eastward move of the diminished ruling family, many chieftains, especially in the west, tried to loosen their imperial bonds and expand their realms. Sensing opportunity amidst the new uncertainty, various powers from the north invaded the region intermittently. Among these were the Sultanate of Bijapur to the northwest, the Sultanate of Golconda to the northeast, the fledgling Maratha empire, farther northwest, and the Mughal empire, farther north still. For much of the 17th century the tussles between the little kings and the big powers, and amongst the little kings, resulted in shifting sovereignties, loyalties, and borders. By the turn of the 18th century, the political landscape had become better defined. The northwestern hills were being ruled by the Nayaka rulers of Ikkeri, the southwestern, in the Western Ghats, by the Rajas of Coorg, the southern plains by the Wodeyar rulers of Mysore, all of which were Hindu dynasties; whereas the eastern and northeastern regions were being ruled by the Muslim Nawabs of Arcot and Sira. Of these, Ikkeri and Coorg were independent, Mysore, although much expanded, was formally a Mughal dependency, and Arcot and Sira, Mughal subahs (or provinces).

The stability, however, was not to last. Mysore's expansions had been based on unstable alliances. When the alliances began to unravel, as they did during the next half century, political decay set in, presided over inevitably by pageant kings. The Mughal governor, Nawab of Arcot, in a display of the still far-flung reach of a declining Mughal empire, raided the Mysore capital, Seringapatam, to collect unpaid taxes. The neighbouring Raja of Coorg began a war of attrition with Mysore over western territory. Soon, the Maratha empire invaded again and exacted more concessions of territory. In the chaotic last decade of this period, a little-known Muslim cavalryman, Haidar Ali, seized power in Mysore. Under him, in the decades following, Mysore was to expand again. It was to do so prodigiously to match in size southern India itself. It was also to pose the last serious threat to the new rising power on the subcontinent, the English East India Company. Read more...

Selected picture

Pangong Tso lake.jpg

Pangong Tso (also known as Pangong lake) is a lake in the Himalayas situated at a height of about 4500m. It is 134 km long and extends from India to Tibet. Two thirds of the length of this lake falls in Tibet (China). It is only 8 km wide at its broadest point. In winter, the lake freezes completely despite being salt water. It can be reached by road in a couple of hours from Leh. The road passes through the third highest pass in the world, the Changla pass.

Photo credit: martinl

Selected lists


26 February 2020 – North East Delhi riots
Violent clashes between Hindu and Muslim protesters over the Citizenship Amendment Act continue in North East Delhi, (NDTV)
25 February 2020 – North East Delhi riots
Violent clashes in North East Delhi, India, between Hindu and Muslim protesters over the (NDTV)
24 February 2020 – North East Delhi riots
Violent clashes in New Delhi, India, between Hindu and Muslim protestors over the Citizenship Amendment Act during U.S. President (The Guardian)
24 February 2020 – India–United States relations
U.S. President Donald Trump visits India and meets Prime Minister (ARY News)
22 February 2020 – Kashmir conflict
Two Kashmiri civilians alleged to be Lashkar-e-Taiba militants are killed by Indian soldiers at Anantnag, Jammu and Kashmir, in a counter-(ARY News)
21 February 2020 – Kashmir conflict
India and Pakistan have engaged in a military confrontation across the de facto border in Kashmir; Indian and Pakistani forces exchanged fire near the Line of Control (LoC) in Kupwara district, (Hindustan Times)
15 February 2020 – India–Turkey relations
Indian Ministry of External Affairs spokesman Raveesh Kumar tells Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan to "not interfere in India's internal affairs" after he and Pakistani Prime Minister Imran Khan issued a joint declaration yesterday condemning the lockdown in (Al Jazeera)

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Topics related to India

Timeline of Indian history, Indus Valley Civilization, Dholavira, Science and technology in ancient India, Meluhha, Aryan invasion theory, Out of India theory, Greek Conquests in India, Indian Ancient Maritime History, Mauryan dynasty, Ashokan Era, Sunga dynasty, Hoysala, Vijayanagara, Satavahana, Indo-Greek kingdom, Indo-Scythians, Indo-Parthian Kingdom, Kushan Empire, Western Kshatrapas, Gupta Empire, Cholas, Pala Empire, Islamic incursions in India, Mughal Era, Maratha Empire, British Raj, British East India Company, Governor-General, Viceroy, War of Independence, 1857, Indian independence movement, Indian National Army, Azad Hind, Quit India Movement, Partition of India, History of Republic of India, Non-Aligned Movement, Sino-Indian War, Indo-Pakistani War of 1947, Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, Kargil War, 2001 India Pakistan standoff, Military, Demographic

Law, Hindu law, Constitution, Political parties (Indian National Congress, Bharatiya Janata Party), Foreign relations, Elections, Political divisions, Reservations in India

Government agencies, Legislative branch (Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha) Executive branch (President & Vice-President, Prime Minister & Deputy Prime Minister, Cabinet Ministers, Cabinet Secretary of India, Election Commission, Foreign Minister; Law enforcement: CBI, CID, Intelligence: IB, RAW), Directorate General of Income Tax Investigation Judicial branch (Supreme Court), Military (Army, Navy, Air Force, Border Security Force, Coast Guard)

The Himalayas, Western Ghats, Eastern Ghats, Indo Gangetic Plain, Deccan Plateau, Thar Desert, Ganges River, Rann of Kutch, Brahmaputra River, North-East India; Mountains, Valleys, Islands, Rivers; States and territories, Cities, Districts, Regions, Fauna and flora

Rupee, Bombay Stock Exchange, National Stock Exchange, Standard of living, Companies, Reserve Bank of India, Energy policy (Solar, Wind, Nuclear), Tourism, Transport (Highways, Rail transport, Auto rickshaw),

Languages, Standard of living, Religion

Music (Carnatic, Hindustani, Indi-pop), Dance, Languages, Literature, Architecture, Film & TV, Cuisine, Holidays, Folklore, Education, Media, Indian martial arts

Indian Council of Agricultural Research(ICAR), Indian Institute of Astrophysics, National Centre for Software Technology, AIIMS, IISc, IIT, NIT, BITS-Pilani, INRegistry, Indian numbering system, Indian Space Research Organisation, India Internet Exchange, ICRISAT, International Institute of Information Technology, Hyderabad


Indian English, Indian nationality law, Numbering system, Indian Space Research Organisation, Communications, National Highways Development Project, Flag, Licence plates, Indian nationalism, Metrication in India

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