temporal range: mesoproterozoic–present
sensu copeland, 1956
- chlorobionta kenrick & crane 1997
- streptobionta kenrick & crane 1997
- charophyta (stoneworts)
- embryophyta engler, 1892 (land plants)
- marchantiophyta (liverworts)
- bryophyta (mosses)
- anthocerotophyta (hornworts)
- tracheophyta (vascular plants)
- viridiplantae cavalier-smith 1981
- chlorobionta jeffrey 1982, emend. bremer 1985, emend. lewis and mccourt 2004
- chlorobiota kenrick and crane 1997
- chloroplastida adl et al., 2005 
- phyta barkley 1939 emend. holt & uidica 2007
- cormophyta endlicher, 1836
- cormobionta rothmaler, 1948
- euplanta barkley, 1949
- telomobionta takhtajan, 1964
- embryobionta cronquist et al., 1966
- metaphyta whittaker, 1969
plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom plantae. historically, plants were treated as one of two kingdoms including all living things that were not animals, and all algae and fungi were treated as plants. however, all current definitions of plantae exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria). by one definition, plants form the clade viridiplantae (latin name for "green plants"), a group that includes the flowering plants, conifers and other gymnosperms, ferns and their allies, hornworts, liverworts, mosses and the green algae, but excludes the red and brown algae.
green plants obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts that are derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria. their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color. some plants are parasitic or mycotrophic and have lost the ability to produce normal amounts of chlorophyll or to photosynthesize. plants are characterized by sexual reproduction and alternation of generations, although asexual reproduction is also common.
there are about 320,000 species of plants, of which the great majority, some 260–290 thousand, produce seeds. green plants provide a substantial proportion of the world's molecular oxygen, and are the basis of most of earth's ecosystems. plants that produce grain, fruit and vegetables also form basic human foods and have been domesticated for millennia. plants have many cultural and other uses, as ornaments, building materials, writing material and, in great variety, they have been the source of medicines and psychoactive drugs. the scientific study of plants is known as botany, a branch of biology.