Panicoideae

Panicoideae
Tonomine highland Kamikawa Hyogo pref Japan07n.jpg
Miscanthus sinensis in Tonomine Highlands, Japan
Scientific classification e
Kingdom:Plantae
Clade:Tracheophytes
Clade:Angiosperms
Clade:Monocots
Clade:Commelinids
Order:Poales
Family:Poaceae
Clade:PACMAD clade
Subfamily:Panicoideae
A. Braun (1864)
Tribes

12 tribes, see text

Synonyms[1]
  • Andropogonoideae Rouy (1913)
  • Centothecoideae Soderst. (1981)
  • Andropogineae Burmeist. (1837, unranked)
  • Paniceae Burmeist. (1837, unranked)
  • Paniceae Link (1827, unranked)
  • RottboĂ«llaceae Burmeist. (1837, unranked)

Panicoideae is the second-largest subfamily of the grasses with over 3,500 species, mainly distributed in warm temperate and tropical regions.[1] It comprises some important agricultural crops, including sugarcane, maize (or corn), sorghum, and switchgrass.

C4 photosynthesis evolved independently a number of times in the subfamily, which presumably had a C3 ancestor.[2]

Systematics and taxonomy

Within the PACMAD clade of grasses, the Panicoideae are sister to a clade made of the four subfamilies Arundinoideae, Chloridoideae, Danthonioideae, and Micrairoideae.[2] A modern phylogenetic classification divides the Panicoideae in twelve tribes corresponding to monophyletic clades; two genera, Chandrasekharania and Jansenella, are unplaced (incertae sedis) but probably belong to tribe Tristachyideae.[1] The three largest tribes, Paniceae, Paspaleae, and Andropogoneae, together with the small Arundinelleae, form the core of the subfamily. The Gynerieae were formerly placed in Arundinoideae, and the basal lineage, the "centothecoid clade" with seven tribes, was formerly seen as separate subfamily, Centothecoideae.[1]

Phylogeny based on chloroplast DNA analyses, showing relationships of tribes within the subfamily (dashed lines indicate uncertain positions; C4 clades flagged):[1][2][3][4]

Panicoideae
"centothecoid clade"

Chasmanthieae

Zeugiteae

Steyermarkochloeae

Tristachyideae C4

Centotheceae

Cyperochloeae

Thysanolaeneae

Gynerieae

Paniceae C3 & C4

Lecomtelleae

Andropogonodae

Paspaleae C3 & C4

Andropogoneae C4

Arundinelleae C4