Nicaragua

  • republic of nicaragua

    república de nicaragua (spanish)
    flag of nicaragua
    flag
    coat of arms of nicaragua
    coat of arms
    motto: en dios confiamos  (spanish)
    "in god we trust" [1]
    anthem: salve a ti, nicaragua  (spanish)
    "hail to thee, nicaragua"
    location of nicaragua
    location of nicaragua
    capital
    and largest city
    managua
    12°6′n 86°14′w / 12°6′n 86°14′w / 12.100; -86.233
    official languagesspanish
    recognised regional languages
    • english
    • miskito
    • rama
    • sumo
    • miskito coastal creole
    • garifuna
    • rama cay creole
    ethnic groups
    (2011[2])
    • 69% mestizo
    • 17% white
    • 9% black
    • 5% indigenous
    demonym(s)nicaraguan
    governmentunitary dominant-party presidential constitutional republic
    • president
    daniel ortega
    • vice president
    rosario murillo
    legislaturenational assembly
    independence from spain, mexico and the federal republic of central america
    • declared
    15 september 1821
    • recognized
    25 july 1850
    • from the first mexican empire
    1 july 1823
    • from the federal republic of central america
    31 may 1838
    • revolution
    19 july 1979
    • current constitution
    9 january 1987[3]
    area
    • total
    130,375 km2 (50,338 sq mi) (96th)
    • water (%)
    7.14
    population
    • 2012 census
    6,167,237[4]
    • density
    51/km2 (132.1/sq mi) (155th)
    gdp (ppp)2018 estimate
    • total
    $35.757 billion[5] (115th)
    • per capita
    $5,683[5] (129th)
    gdp (nominal)2018 estimate
    • total
    $13.380 billion[5] (127th)
    • per capita
    $2,126[5] (134th)
    gini (2014)46.2[6]
    high
    hdi (2018)decrease 0.651[7]
    medium · 126th
    currencycórdoba (nio)
    time zoneutc−6 (cst)
    driving sideright
    calling code+505
    iso 3166 codeni
    internet tld.ni

    nicaragua (ə/ (about this soundlisten); spanish: [nikaˈɾaɣwa] (about this soundlisten)), officially the republic of nicaragua (spanish: about this soundrepública de nicaragua ), is the largest country in the central american isthmus, bordered by honduras to the northwest, the caribbean to the east, costa rica to the south, and the pacific ocean to the southwest. managua is the country's capital and largest city and is also the third-largest city in central america, behind tegucigalpa and guatemala city. the multi-ethnic population of six million includes people of indigenous, european, african, and asian heritage. the main language is spanish. indigenous tribes on the mosquito coast speak their own languages and english.

    originally inhabited by various indigenous cultures since ancient times, the region was conquered by the spanish empire in the 16th century. nicaragua gained independence from spain in 1821. the mosquito coast followed a different historical path, being colonized by the english in the 17th century and later coming under british rule. it became an autonomous territory of nicaragua in 1860 and its northernmost part was transferred to honduras in 1960. since its independence, nicaragua has undergone periods of political unrest, dictatorship, occupation and fiscal crisis, including the nicaraguan revolution of the 1960s and 1970s and the contra war of the 1980s.

    the mixture of cultural traditions has generated substantial diversity in folklore, cuisine, music, and literature, particularly the latter, given the literary contributions of nicaraguan poets and writers such as rubén darío. known as the "land of lakes and volcanoes",[8][9] nicaragua is also home to the second-largest rainforest of the americas. the country has set a goal of 90% renewable energy by the year 2020.[10] the biological diversity, warm tropical climate and active volcanoes make nicaragua an increasingly popular tourist destination.[11][12]

  • etymology
  • history
  • geography and climate
  • nature and environment
  • government
  • economy
  • demographics
  • culture
  • see also
  • references
  • additional sources
  • external links

Republic of Nicaragua

República de Nicaragua (Spanish)
Motto: En Dios confiamos  (Spanish)
"In God We Trust" [1]
Anthem: Salve a ti, Nicaragua  (Spanish)
"Hail to Thee, Nicaragua"
Location of Nicaragua
Location of Nicaragua
Capital
and largest city
Managua
12°6′N 86°14′W / 12°6′N 86°14′W / 12.100; -86.233
Official languagesSpanish
Recognised regional languages
Ethnic groups
(2011[2])
Demonym(s)Nicaraguan
GovernmentUnitary dominant-party presidential constitutional republic
• President
Daniel Ortega
Rosario Murillo
LegislatureNational Assembly
Independence from Spain, Mexico and the Federal Republic of Central America
• Declared
15 September 1821
• Recognized
25 July 1850
• from the First Mexican Empire
1 July 1823
31 May 1838
• Revolution
19 July 1979
• Current constitution
9 January 1987[3]
Area
• Total
130,375 km2 (50,338 sq mi) (96th)
• Water (%)
7.14
Population
• 2012 census
6,167,237[4]
• Density
51/km2 (132.1/sq mi) (155th)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$35.757 billion[5] (115th)
• Per capita
$5,683[5] (129th)
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$13.380 billion[5] (127th)
• Per capita
$2,126[5] (134th)
Gini (2014)46.2[6]
high
HDI (2018)Decrease 0.651[7]
medium · 126th
CurrencyCórdoba (NIO)
Time zoneUTC−6 (CST)
Driving sideright
Calling code+505
ISO 3166 codeNI
Internet TLD.ni

Nicaragua (ə/ (About this soundlisten); Spanish: [nikaˈɾaɣwa] (About this soundlisten)), officially the Republic of Nicaragua (Spanish: About this soundRepública de Nicaragua ), is the largest country in the Central American isthmus, bordered by Honduras to the northwest, the Caribbean to the east, Costa Rica to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the southwest. Managua is the country's capital and largest city and is also the third-largest city in Central America, behind Tegucigalpa and Guatemala City. The multi-ethnic population of six million includes people of indigenous, European, African, and Asian heritage. The main language is Spanish. Indigenous tribes on the Mosquito Coast speak their own languages and English.

Originally inhabited by various indigenous cultures since ancient times, the region was conquered by the Spanish Empire in the 16th century. Nicaragua gained independence from Spain in 1821. The Mosquito Coast followed a different historical path, being colonized by the English in the 17th century and later coming under British rule. It became an autonomous territory of Nicaragua in 1860 and its northernmost part was transferred to Honduras in 1960. Since its independence, Nicaragua has undergone periods of political unrest, dictatorship, occupation and fiscal crisis, including the Nicaraguan Revolution of the 1960s and 1970s and the Contra War of the 1980s.

The mixture of cultural traditions has generated substantial diversity in folklore, cuisine, music, and literature, particularly the latter, given the literary contributions of Nicaraguan poets and writers such as Rubén Darío. Known as the "land of lakes and volcanoes",[8][9] Nicaragua is also home to the second-largest rainforest of the Americas. The country has set a goal of 90% renewable energy by the year 2020.[10] The biological diversity, warm tropical climate and active volcanoes make Nicaragua an increasingly popular tourist destination.[11][12]