Natya Shastra

Natya Shastra
Shiva as the Lord of Dance LACMA edit.jpg
Shiva as the Lord of Dance
AuthorBharata Muni

The Nāṭya Śāstra (Sanskrit: नाट्य शास्त्र, Nāṭyaśāstra) is a Sanskrit text on the performing arts.[1][2] The text is attributed to sage Bharata Muni, and its first complete compilation is dated to between 200 BCE and 200 CE,[3][4] but estimates vary between 500 BCE and 500 CE.[5]

The text consists of 36 chapters with a cumulative total of 6000 poetic verses describing performance arts. The subjects covered by the treatise include dramatic composition, structure of a play and the construction of a stage to host it, genres of acting, body movements, make up and costumes, role and goals of an art director, the musical scales, musical instruments and the integration of music with art performance.[6][7]

Natya Shastra.png

The Nāṭya Śāstra is notable as an ancient encyclopedic treatise on the arts,[2][8] one which has influenced dance, music and literary traditions in India.[9] It is also notable for its aesthetic "Rasa" theory, which asserts that entertainment is a desired effect of performance arts but not the primary goal, and that the primary goal is to transport the individual in the audience into another parallel reality, full of wonder, where he experiences the essence of his own consciousness, and reflects on spiritual and moral questions.[8][10] The text has inspired secondary literature such as Sanskrit bhasya (reviews and commentaries) such as by the 10th century Abhinavagupta.[11]


The title of the text is composed of two words, "Nāṭya" and "Śāstra". The root of the Sanskrit word Natya is Nat (नाट) which means "act, represent".[12] The word Shastra (शास्त्र) means "precept, rules, manual, compendium, book or treatise", and is generally used as a suffix in the Indian literature context, for knowledge in a defined area of practice.[13]