Mark Antony

  • marcus antonius
    marcus antonius marble bust in the vatican museums.jpg
    a roman marble portrait bust of mark antony made during the flavian dynasty (69—96 ad), rome, vatican museums, chiaramonti museum
    triumvir of the roman republic
    in office
    27 november 43 bc – 31 december 33 bc
    serving with octavian and marcus aemilius lepidus
    consul of the roman republic
    in office
    1 january 34 bc – 31 december 34 bc
    serving with lucius scribonius libo
    preceded bylucius cornificius and sextus pompeius
    succeeded byoctavian and lucius volcatius tullus
    in office
    1 january 44 bc – 31 december 44 bc
    serving with julius caesar
    preceded byjulius caesar
    succeeded byaulus hirtius and gaius vibius pansa caetronianus
    magister equitum of the roman republic
    in office
    48 bc – 48 bc
    dictatorjulius caesar
    preceded bylucius valerius flaccus
    succeeded bymarcus aemilius lepidus
    people's tribune of the roman republic
    in office
    1 january 49 bc – 7 january 49 bc
    consort of queen cleopatra
    in office
    32 bc – 30 bc
    personal details
    born14 january 83 bc
    rome, italia, roman republic
    died1 august 30 bc (aged 53)
    alexandria, ptolemaic egypt
    cause of deathsuicide
    nationalityroman
    political partypopulares
    spouse(s)
    fadia
    (dates unknown)
    antonia hybrida minor (?–47 bc)
    fulvia (46–40 bc)
    octavia minor (40–32 bc)
    cleopatra (32–30 bc)
    children
    • antonia prima
    • marcus antonius antyllus
    • iullus antonius
    • antonia major
    • antonia minor
    • alexander helios
    • cleopatra selene ii
    • ptolemy philadelphus
    occupationmilitary commander and politician
    known forhis rivalry with octavian for the full control of rome and its territories.
    military service
    allegianceroman military banner.svg roman republic
    branch/serviceroman army
    years of service54–30 bc
    rankproconsul
    commandslegio xiii gemina
    battles/wars
    • gallic wars
      • battle of alesia
    • caesar's civil war
      • battle of dyrrhachium
      • battle of pharsalus
      • riots in rome
    • post-caesarian civil war
      • battle of forum gallorum
      • battle of mutina
    • liberators' civil war
      • battle of philippi
    • roman–parthian wars
    • final roman civil war
      • battle of actium

    marcus antonius[note 1] (14 january 83 bc – 1 august 30 bc), commonly known in english as mark antony or anthony, was a roman politician and general who played a critical role in the transformation of the roman republic from an oligarchy into the autocratic roman empire.

    antony was a supporter of julius caesar, and served as one of his generals during the conquest of gaul and the civil war. antony was appointed administrator of italy while caesar eliminated political opponents in greece, north africa, and spain. after caesar's death in 44 bc, antony joined forces with marcus aemilius lepidus, another of caesar's generals, and octavian, caesar's great-nephew and adopted son, forming a three-man dictatorship known to historians as the second triumvirate. the triumvirs defeated caesar's murderers, the liberatores, at the battle of philippi in 42 bc, and divided the government of the republic between themselves. antony was assigned rome's eastern provinces, including the client kingdom of egypt, then ruled by cleopatra vii philopator, and was given the command in rome's war against parthia.

    relations among the triumvirs were strained as the various members sought greater political power. civil war between antony and octavian was averted in 40 bc, when antony married octavian's sister, octavia. despite this marriage, antony carried on a love affair with cleopatra, who bore him three children, further straining antony's relations with octavian. lepidus was expelled from the association in 36 bc, and in 33 bc disagreements between antony and octavian caused a split between the remaining triumvirs. their ongoing hostility erupted into civil war in 31 bc, as the roman senate, at octavian's direction, declared war on cleopatra and proclaimed antony a traitor. later that year, antony was defeated by octavian's forces at the battle of actium. antony and cleopatra fled to egypt, where they committed suicide.

    with antony dead, octavian became the undisputed master of the roman world. in 27 bc, octavian was granted the title of augustus, marking the final stage in the transformation of the roman republic into an empire, with himself as the first roman emperor.

  • early life
  • early career
  • master of the roman east
  • aftermath and legacy
  • marriages and issue
  • descendants
  • artistic portrayals
  • see also
  • notes
  • references
  • external links

Marcus Antonius
Marcus Antonius marble bust in the Vatican Museums.jpg
A Roman marble portrait bust of Mark Antony made during the Flavian dynasty (69—96 AD), Rome, Vatican Museums, Chiaramonti Museum
Triumvir of the Roman Republic
In office
27 November 43 BC – 31 December 33 BC
Consul of the Roman Republic
In office
1 January 34 BC – 31 December 34 BC
Preceded byLucius Cornificius and Sextus Pompeius
Succeeded byOctavian and Lucius Volcatius Tullus
In office
1 January 44 BC – 31 December 44 BC
Serving with Julius Caesar
Preceded byJulius Caesar
Succeeded byAulus Hirtius and Gaius Vibius Pansa Caetronianus
Magister equitum of the Roman Republic
In office
48 BC – 48 BC
DictatorJulius Caesar
Preceded byLucius Valerius Flaccus
Succeeded byMarcus Aemilius Lepidus
People's Tribune of the Roman Republic
In office
1 January 49 BC – 7 January 49 BC
Consort of Queen Cleopatra
In office
32 BC – 30 BC
Personal details
Born14 January 83 BC
Rome, Italia, Roman Republic
Died1 August 30 BC (aged 53)
Alexandria, Ptolemaic Egypt
Cause of deathSuicide
NationalityRoman
Political partyPopulares
Spouse(s)
Fadia
(dates unknown)
Antonia Hybrida Minor (?–47 BC)
Fulvia (46–40 BC)
Octavia Minor (40–32 BC)
Cleopatra (32–30 BC)
Children
OccupationMilitary commander and politician
Known forHis rivalry with Octavian for the full control of Rome and its territories.
Military service
AllegianceRoman Military banner.svg Roman Republic
Branch/serviceRoman Army
Years of service54–30 BC
RankProconsul
CommandsLegio XIII Gemina
Battles/wars

Marcus Antonius[note 1] (14 January 83 BC – 1 August 30 BC), commonly known in English as Mark Antony or Anthony, was a Roman politician and general who played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic from an oligarchy into the autocratic Roman Empire.

Antony was a supporter of Julius Caesar, and served as one of his generals during the conquest of Gaul and the Civil War. Antony was appointed administrator of Italy while Caesar eliminated political opponents in Greece, North Africa, and Spain. After Caesar's death in 44 BC, Antony joined forces with Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, another of Caesar's generals, and Octavian, Caesar's great-nephew and adopted son, forming a three-man dictatorship known to historians as the Second Triumvirate. The Triumvirs defeated Caesar's murderers, the Liberatores, at the Battle of Philippi in 42 BC, and divided the government of the Republic between themselves. Antony was assigned Rome's eastern provinces, including the client kingdom of Egypt, then ruled by Cleopatra VII Philopator, and was given the command in Rome's war against Parthia.

Relations among the triumvirs were strained as the various members sought greater political power. Civil war between Antony and Octavian was averted in 40 BC, when Antony married Octavian's sister, Octavia. Despite this marriage, Antony carried on a love affair with Cleopatra, who bore him three children, further straining Antony's relations with Octavian. Lepidus was expelled from the association in 36 BC, and in 33 BC disagreements between Antony and Octavian caused a split between the remaining Triumvirs. Their ongoing hostility erupted into civil war in 31 BC, as the Roman Senate, at Octavian's direction, declared war on Cleopatra and proclaimed Antony a traitor. Later that year, Antony was defeated by Octavian's forces at the Battle of Actium. Antony and Cleopatra fled to Egypt, where they committed suicide.

With Antony dead, Octavian became the undisputed master of the Roman world. In 27 BC, Octavian was granted the title of Augustus, marking the final stage in the transformation of the Roman Republic into an empire, with himself as the first Roman emperor.