Madrid

Madrid
Gran Vía
Plaza Mayor
AZCA & CBTAde
Madrid May 2014-45a.jpg
Royal Palace and Almudena Cathedral
From upper left: Gran Vía, Plaza Mayor, business districts of AZCA and CTBA, Puerta de Alcalá; and the Royal Palace, Almudena Cathedral
Motto(s): 
"Fui sobre agua edificada,
mis muros de fuego son.
Esta es mi insignia y blasón"

("On water I was built, my walls are made of fire.
This is my ensign and escutcheon")
Madrid is located in Spain
Madrid
Madrid
Location within Spain
Madrid is located in Europe
Madrid
Madrid
Location within Europe
Coordinates: 40°23′N 3°43′W / 40°23′N 3°43′W / 40.383; -3.717

Madrid (d/, Spanish: [maˈðɾið])[n. 1] is the capital and most populous city of Spain. The city has almost 3.3 million[8] inhabitants and a metropolitan area population of approximately 6.5 million. It is the third-largest city in the European Union (EU), surpassed only by London and Berlin, and its monocentric metropolitan area is the third-largest in the EU, smaller only than those of London and Paris.[9][10][11] The municipality covers 604.3 km2 (233.3 sq mi).[12]

Madrid lies on the River Manzanares in the centre of both the country and the Community of Madrid (which comprises the city of Madrid, its conurbation and extended suburbs and villages); this community is bordered by the autonomous communities of Castile and León and Castile-La Mancha. As the capital city of Spain, seat of government, and residence of the Spanish monarch, Madrid is also the political, economic and cultural centre of the country.[13] The current mayor is José Luis Martínez-Almeida from the People's Party.

The Madrid urban agglomeration has the third-largest GDP[14] in the European Union and its influence in politics, education, entertainment, environment, media, fashion, science, culture, and the arts all contribute to its status as one of the world's major global cities.[15][16] Madrid is home to two world-famous football clubs, Real Madrid and Atlético Madrid. Due to its economic output, high standard of living, and market size, Madrid is considered the leading economic hub of the Iberian Peninsula and of Southern Europe.[17][18] It hosts the head offices of the vast majority of major Spanish companies, such as Telefónica, IAG or Repsol. Madrid is also the 10th most liveable city in the world according to Monocle magazine, in its 2017 index.[19]

Madrid houses the headquarters of the UN's World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), the Ibero-American General Secretariat (SEGIB), the Organization of Ibero-American States (OEI), and the Public Interest Oversight Board (PIOB). It also hosts major international regulators and promoters of the Spanish language: the Standing Committee of the Association of Spanish Language Academies, headquarters of the Royal Spanish Academy (RAE), the Cervantes Institute and the Foundation of Urgent Spanish (Fundéu BBVA). Madrid organises fairs such as FITUR,[20] ARCO,[21] SIMO TCI[22] and the Madrid Fashion Week.[23]

While Madrid possesses modern infrastructure, it has preserved the look and feel of many of its historic neighbourhoods and streets. Its landmarks include the Plaza Mayor, the Royal Palace of Madrid; the Royal Theatre with its restored 1850 Opera House; the Buen Retiro Park, founded in 1631; the 19th-century National Library building (founded in 1712) containing some of Spain's historical archives; many national museums,[24] and the Golden Triangle of Art, located along the Paseo del Prado and comprising three art museums: Prado Museum, the Reina Sofía Museum, a museum of modern art, and the Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum, which complements the holdings of the other two museums.[25] Cibeles Palace and Fountain have become one of the monument symbols of the city.[26][27]

Etymology

مجريط Majrīṭ (AFI [madʒriːtˤ]) is the first documented reference to the city. It is recorded in Andalusi Arabic during the al-Andalus period. The name Magerit ([madʒeˈɾit]) was retained in Medieval Spanish. The most ancient recorded name of the city "Magerit" (for *Materit or *Mageterit?) comes from the name of a fortress built on the Manzanares River in the 9th century AD, and means "Place of abundant water" in Arabic.[28] A wider number of theories have been formulated on possible earlier origins.

According to legend, Madrid was founded by Ocno Bianor (son of King Tyrrhenius of Tuscany and Mantua) and was named "Metragirta" or "Mantua Carpetana". Others contend that the original name of the city was "Ursaria" ("land of bears" in Latin), because of the many bears that were to be found in the nearby forests, which, together with the strawberry tree (Spanish madroño), have been the emblem of the city since the Middle Ages.[29]

Nevertheless, it is also speculated that the origin of the current name of the city comes from the 2nd century BC. The Roman Empire established a settlement on the banks of the Manzanares river. The name of this first village was "Matrice" (a reference to the river that crossed the settlement). Following the invasions carried out by the Germanic Sueves and Vandals, as well as the Sarmatic Alans during the 5th century AD, the Roman Empire no longer had the military presence required to defend its territories on the Iberian Peninsula, and as a consequence, these territories were soon occupied by the Vandals, who were in turn dispelled by the Visigoths, who then ruled Hispania in the name of the Roman emperor, also taking control of "Matrice". In the 8th century, the Islamic conquest of the Iberian Peninsula saw the name changed to "Mayrit", from the Arabic term ميرا Mayra[citation needed] (referencing water as a 'tree' or 'giver of life') and the Ibero-Roman suffix it that means 'place'. The modern "Madrid" evolved from the Mozarabic "Matrit", which is still in the Madrilenian gentilic.[30]