List of presidents of Brazil

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Below is a list of presidents of Brazil.

The Old Republic (1889–1930)

In 1889 the Empire of Brazil was abolished and replaced with a republic in a coup d'état led by Marshal Deodoro da Fonseca, who deposed Brazilian Emperor Dom Pedro II, proclaimed Brazil a Republic and formed a Provisional Government. The 15 November 1889 military coup actually began as an attempt to overthrow the Empire's Prime Minister, Afonso Celso, Viscount of Ouro Preto, but the unprecedented coup against a Prime Minister appointed by the Emperor and who enjoyed the confidence of the elected Chamber of Deputies quickly escalated to the abolition of the monarchy. With the proclamation of the Brazilian Republic, the Empire's Constitution ceased to operate, the Imperial Parliament (the General Assembly) ceased to exist, and not only was the Viscount of Ouro Preto removed from office, but the position of Prime Minister itself ceased to exist. As head of the provisional government, Marshal Deodoro da Fonseca ruled by decree, discharging both the functions of head of state and of head of government. The former provinces of the Empire were reorganized as states and the newly proclaimed republic was declared a federation, formed by the perpetual union of those states.

In 1890, elections for a Constituent Congress were summoned and held, but the decree of the Provisional Government that created the Congress required it to adopt a Constitution that conformed to the recently proclaimed republican system of Government, and that organized the recently declared Federal State. In February 1891, a new Brazilian Constitution was adopted, based on the federal republic of the United States of America. The country itself was named the Republic of the United States of Brazil. In accordance with the provisions of the Constitution, the presidents of the Republic were to be elected by direct popular ballot, but, for the first presidential term, the President and Vice President would be chosen by the Constituent Congress; the Constituent Congress was to elect the first President and Vice President immediately after the promulgation of the Constitution. In accordance with those transitional provisions, Congress elected the then Head of the Provisional Government, Deodoro da Fonseca, as the first President of the Republic. Marshal Floriano Peixoto, was elected by Congress to be the first Vice President. The inauguration of the first President and of the first Vice President was held on 26 February 1891, only two days after the promulgation of the Constitution. Deodoro resigned the presidency ten months later after a coup d'état in which he dissolved Congress was reversed. Then, Floriano Peixoto, Deodoro's Vice President, was inaugurated as President. In 1894, Peixoto was succeeded by Prudente de Morais, the first President of Brazil to be elected by direct popular ballot. De Morais, who was the first president to be elected under the permanent provisions of the Constitution adopted in 1891, was also the first civilian to assume the presidency.

Although it was theoretically a constitutional democracy, the Old Republic was characterized by the power of regional oligarchies and the seldom broken alternation of power in the federal sphere between the states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais. The vote in the countryside was often controlled by the local land owner, and less than 6% of the population had the right to vote due to literacy requirements.

In 1930, when Brazil was suffering the effects of the Wall Street Crash of 1929, a revolution broke out in the country and the old republic ended. President Washington Luís, who was supported by São Paulo oligarchies, broke the expected alternation between São Paulo and Minas and supported a candidate who was also from São Paulo, Júlio Prestes. Prestes won the rigged election, but Washington Luís was deposed three weeks before the end of his term and Prestes was never inaugurated.

Parties

  None (military)   Federal Republican Party   São Paulo Republican Party   Republican Party of Minas Gerais   Rio de Janeiro Republican Party   Conservative Republican Party   Barreiros' Republican Party   Republican Party of Bahia

President
(birth–death)
Portrait Elected Took office Left office Political party Vice President(s) Previous public office Birthplace
1 Deodoro da Fonseca
(1827–1892)
Deodoro da Fonseca (1889).jpg 1891 Head of the Provisional Government
from 15 November 1889

26 February 1891[a]
23 November 1891 [b] None (military) Floriano Peixoto President of the São Pedro do Rio Grande do Sul Province Cidade das Alagoas, Alagoas
2 Floriano Peixoto
(1839–1895)
Floriano Peixoto (1891).jpg 23 November 1891 14 November 1894 [c] None (military)
Vacant
Vice President Maceió, Alagoas
3 Prudente de Morais
(1841–1902)
Prudentedemorais.jpg 1894 15 November 1894 14 November 1898 Federal Republican Party (PR Fed) Manuel Vitorino
(PR Fed)
President of the Federal Senate
Senator for São Paulo
Formerly, President of the

Constituent Congress

Itu, São Paulo
4 Campos Sales
(1841–1913)
Campos Sales.jpg 1898 15 November 1898 14 November 1902 São Paulo Republican Party (PRP) Rosa e Silva
(PR Fed)
Governor of São Paulo Campinas, São Paulo
5 Rodrigues Alves
(1848–1919)
Rodrigues Alves 3.jpg 1902 15 November 1902 14 November 1906 São Paulo Republican Party (PRP) Silviano Brandão[d]
(PRM)
Governor of São Paulo Guaratinguetá, São Paulo
Afonso Pena[e]
(PRM)
6 Afonso Pena
(1847–1909)
Afonso Pena.jpg 1906 15 November 1906 14 June 1909 [f] Mineiro Republican Party (PRM) Nilo Peçanha
(PRF)
Vice President Santa Bárbara, Minas Gerais
7 Nilo Peçanha
(1867–1924)
Nilo Peçanha 02.jpg 14 June 1909 14 November 1910 Rio Republican Party (PRF)
Vacant
Vice President Campos, Rio de Janeiro
8 Hermes da Fonseca
(1855–1923)
Hermes da Fonseca (1910).jpg 1910 15 November 1910 14 November 1914 Conservative Republican Party (PRC)
Venceslau Brás
(PRM)
Minister of the Superior Military Court São Gabriel, Rio Grande do Sul
9 Venceslau Brás
(1868–1966)
Venceslau Brás.jpg 1914 15 November 1914 14 November 1918 Mineiro Republican Party (PRM) Urbano Santos
(PRM)
Vice President Brasópolis, Minas Gerais
Rodrigues Alves
(1848–1919)
Rodrigues Alves 3.jpg 1918 Never took office.[g] São Paulo Republican Party (PRP) Delfim Moreira
(PRM)
Senator for São Paulo and former President of the Republic Guaratinguetá, São Paulo
10 Delfim Moreira
(1868–1920)
Delfim Moreira (1918).jpg Acting President from 15 November 1918
16 January 1919
28 July 1919 [h] Mineiro Republican Party (PRM)
Vacant
Vice President Cristina, Minas Gerais
11 Epitácio Pessoa
(1865–1942)
Epitácio Pessoa 2.jpg 1919 28 July 1919[i] 14 November 1922 Mineiro Republican Party (PRM) Delfim Moreira
(PRM)
Senator for Paraíba Umbuzeiro, Paraíba
Bueno de Paiva[j]
(PRM)
12 Arthur Bernardes
(1875–1955)
Artur Bernardes (1922).jpg 1922 15 November 1922 14 November 1926 Mineiro Republican Party (PRM) Estácio Coimbra
(PRB)
Governor of Minas Gerais Viçosa, Minas Gerais
13 Washington Luís
(1869–1957)
Washington Luís (foto).jpg 1926 15 November 1926 24 October 1930 [k] São Paulo Republican Party (PRP) Fernando de Melo Viana
(PRM)
Senator for São Paulo Macaé, Rio de Janeiro
Júlio Prestes
(1882–1946)
Cartão-postal de Campanha de Júlio Prestes - 1930 (cropped).jpg 1930 Never took office.[l] São Paulo Republican Party (PRP) Vital Soares
(PRB)
Governor of São Paulo Itapetininga, São Paulo