latin inscription, in the colosseum
- roman kingdom / republic / empire
- armenian kingdom of cilicia (lingua franca)
- vatican city
|era||vulgar latin developed into the romance languages, 6th to 9th centuries; the formal language continued as the scholarly lingua franca of catholic countries and medieval europe and as the liturgical language of the catholic church.|
|latin alphabet |
official language in
- antiquity: roman schools of grammar/rhetoric
- today: pontifical academy for latin
51-aab-aa to 51-aab-ac
map indicating the greatest extent of the roman empire under emperor trajan (c.
117 ad) and the area governed by latin speakers (dark red). many languages other than latin were spoken within the empire.
range of the romance languages, the modern descendants of latin, in europe.
latin (lingua latīna, ipa: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the italic branch of the indo-european languages. latin was originally spoken in the area around rome, known as latium. through the power of the roman republic, it became the dominant language in italy, and subsequently throughout the western roman empire. latin has contributed many words to the english language. in particular, latin (and ancient greek) roots are used in english descriptions of theology, the sciences, medicine, and law. it is the official language in the holy see (vatican city).
by the late roman republic (75 bc), old latin had been standardised into classical latin. vulgar latin was the colloquial form spoken during the same time and attested in inscriptions and the works of comic playwrights like plautus and terence and author petronius. late latin is the written language from the 3rd century; its colloquial form vulgar latin developed into the romance languages, such as italian, french, portuguese, romanian, catalan and spanish in the 6th to 9th centuries. medieval latin was used as a literary language from the 9th century to the renaissance which used renaissance latin. later, early modern latin and new latin evolved. latin was used as the language of international communication, scholarship and science until well into the 18th century, when it began to be supplanted by vernaculars (including the romance languages). ecclesiastical latin remains the official language of the holy see and the roman rite of the catholic church.
latin is a highly inflected language, with three distinct genders, six or seven noun cases, five declensions, four verb conjugations, six tenses, three persons, three moods, two voices, two or three aspects and two numbers. the latin alphabet is derived from the etruscan and greek alphabets and ultimately from the phoenician alphabet.