Kashmir Shaivism

  • the trident (triśūlābija maṇḍalam), symbol and yantra of parama shiva, representing the triadic energies of the supreme goddess parā, parā-aparā and aparā śakti.

    kashmir shaivism or more accurately trika shaivism refers to a nondualist tradition of Śaiva-Śakta tantra which originated sometime after 850 ce.[1][2] though this tradition was very influential in kashmir and is thus often called kashmir shaivism, it was actually a pan-indian movement termed "trika" by its great exegete abhinavagupta, which also flourished in oḍiśā and mahārāṣṭra.[2][3] defining features of the trika tradition is its idealistic and monistic pratyabhijnā ("recognition") philosophical system, propounded by utpaladeva (c. 925–975 ce) and abhinavagupta (c. 975–1025 ce), and the centrality of the three goddesses parā, parāparā, and aparā.[1][2]

    while trika draws from numerous Śaiva texts, such as the shaiva agamas and the Śaiva and Śakta tantras, its major scriptural authorities are the mālinīvijayottara tantra, the siddhayogeśvarīmata and the anāmaka-tantra.[4] its main exegetical works are those of abhinavagupta, such as the tantrāloka, mālinīślokavārttika, and tantrasāra which are formally an exegesis of the mālinīvijayottara tantra, although they also drew heavily on the kali-based krama subcategory of the kulamārga.[5]

    kashmir shaivism claimed to supersede shaiva siddhanta, a dualistic tradition which scholars consider normative tantric shaivism.[6] the shaiva siddhanta goal of becoming an ontologically distinct shiva (through shiva's grace) was replaced by recognizing oneself as shiva who, in kashmir shaivism's monism, is the entirety of the universe.[7]

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The trident (triśūlābija maṇḍalam), symbol and yantra of Parama Shiva, representing the triadic energies of the supreme goddess Parā, Parā-aparā and Aparā śakti.

Kashmir Shaivism or more accurately Trika Shaivism refers to a nondualist tradition of Śaiva-Śakta Tantra which originated sometime after 850 CE.[1][2] Though this tradition was very influential in Kashmir and is thus often called Kashmir Shaivism, it was actually a pan-Indian movement termed "Trika" by its great exegete Abhinavagupta, which also flourished in Oḍiśā and Mahārāṣṭra.[2][3] Defining features of the Trika tradition is its idealistic and monistic Pratyabhijnā ("Recognition") philosophical system, propounded by Utpaladeva (c. 925–975 CE) and Abhinavagupta (c. 975–1025 CE), and the centrality of the three goddesses Parā, Parāparā, and Aparā.[1][2]

While Trika draws from numerous Śaiva texts, such as the Shaiva Agamas and the Śaiva and Śakta Tantras, its major scriptural authorities are the Mālinīvijayottara Tantra, the Siddhayogeśvarīmata and the Anāmaka-tantra.[4] Its main exegetical works are those of Abhinavagupta, such as the Tantrāloka, Mālinīślokavārttika, and Tantrasāra which are formally an exegesis of the Mālinīvijayottara Tantra, although they also drew heavily on the Kali-based Krama subcategory of the Kulamārga.[5]

Kashmir Shaivism claimed to supersede Shaiva Siddhanta, a dualistic tradition which scholars consider normative tantric Shaivism.[6] The Shaiva Siddhanta goal of becoming an ontologically distinct Shiva (through Shiva's grace) was replaced by recognizing oneself as Shiva who, in Kashmir Shaivism's monism, is the entirety of the universe.[7]