Java (programming language)

  • java programming language
    java programming language logo.svg
    paradigmmulti-paradigm: generic, object-oriented (class-based), imperative, reflective
    designed byjames gosling
    developersun microsystems
    first appearedmay 23, 1995; 24 years ago (1995-05-23)[1]
    stable release
    java se 14[2] / march 17, 2020; 23 days ago (2020-03-17)
    typing disciplinestatic, strong, safe, nominative, manifest
    filename extensions.java, .class, oracle.com/java/
    influenced by
    ada 83, c++,[3] c#,[4] eiffel,[5] mesa,[6] modula-3,[7] oberon,[8] objective-c,[9] ucsd pascal,[10][11] object pascal[12]
    influenced
    ada 2005, beanshell, c#, chapel,[13] clojure, ecmascript, fantom, gambas,[14] groovy, hack,[15] haxe, j#, kotlin, php, python, scala, seed7, vala
    • java programming at wikibooks

    java is a general-purpose programming language that is class-based, object-oriented, and designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible. it is intended to let application developers write once, run anywhere (wora),[16] meaning that compiled java code can run on all platforms that support java without the need for recompilation.[17] java applications are typically compiled to bytecode that can run on any java virtual machine (jvm) regardless of the underlying computer architecture. the syntax of java is similar to c and c++, but it has fewer low-level facilities than either of them. as of 2019, java was one of the most popular programming languages in use according to github,[18][19] particularly for client-server web applications, with a reported 9 million developers.[20]

    java was originally developed by james gosling at sun microsystems (which has since been acquired by oracle) and released in 1995 as a core component of sun microsystems' java platform. the original and reference implementation java compilers, virtual machines, and class libraries were originally released by sun under proprietary licenses. as of may 2007, in compliance with the specifications of the java community process, sun had relicensed most of its java technologies under the gnu general public license. meanwhile, others have developed alternative implementations of these sun technologies, such as the gnu compiler for java (bytecode compiler), gnu classpath (standard libraries), and icedtea-web (browser plugin for applets).

    the latest versions are java 14, released in march 2020, and java 11, a currently supported long-term support (lts) version, released on september 25, 2018; oracle released for the legacy java 8 lts the last free public update in january 2019 for commercial use, while it will otherwise still support java 8 with public updates for personal use up to at least december 2020. oracle (and others) highly recommend uninstalling older versions of java because of serious risks due to unresolved security issues.[21] since java 9, 10, 12 and 13 are no longer supported, oracle advises its users to immediately transition to the latest version (currently java 14) or an lts release.

  • history
  • editions
  • execution system
  • syntax
  • special classes
  • criticism
  • class libraries
  • documentation
  • implementations
  • use outside the java platform
  • see also
  • works cited
  • references
  • external links

Java Programming Language
Java programming language logo.svg
ParadigmMulti-paradigm: generic, object-oriented (class-based), imperative, reflective
Designed byJames Gosling
DeveloperSun Microsystems
First appearedMay 23, 1995; 24 years ago (1995-05-23)[1]
Stable release
Java SE 14[2] / March 17, 2020; 23 days ago (2020-03-17)
Typing disciplineStatic, strong, safe, nominative, manifest
Filename extensions.java, .class, oracle.com/java/
Influenced by
Ada 83, C++,[3] C#,[4] Eiffel,[5] Mesa,[6] Modula-3,[7] Oberon,[8] Objective-C,[9] UCSD Pascal,[10][11] Object Pascal[12]
Influenced
Ada 2005, BeanShell, C#, Chapel,[13] Clojure, ECMAScript, Fantom, Gambas,[14] Groovy, Hack,[15] Haxe, J#, Kotlin, PHP, Python, Scala, Seed7, Vala

Java is a general-purpose programming language that is class-based, object-oriented, and designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible. It is intended to let application developers write once, run anywhere (WORA),[16] meaning that compiled Java code can run on all platforms that support Java without the need for recompilation.[17] Java applications are typically compiled to bytecode that can run on any Java virtual machine (JVM) regardless of the underlying computer architecture. The syntax of Java is similar to C and C++, but it has fewer low-level facilities than either of them. As of 2019, Java was one of the most popular programming languages in use according to GitHub,[18][19] particularly for client-server web applications, with a reported 9 million developers.[20]

Java was originally developed by James Gosling at Sun Microsystems (which has since been acquired by Oracle) and released in 1995 as a core component of Sun Microsystems' Java platform. The original and reference implementation Java compilers, virtual machines, and class libraries were originally released by Sun under proprietary licenses. As of May 2007, in compliance with the specifications of the Java Community Process, Sun had relicensed most of its Java technologies under the GNU General Public License. Meanwhile, others have developed alternative implementations of these Sun technologies, such as the GNU Compiler for Java (bytecode compiler), GNU Classpath (standard libraries), and IcedTea-Web (browser plugin for applets).

The latest versions are Java 14, released in March 2020, and Java 11, a currently supported long-term support (LTS) version, released on September 25, 2018; Oracle released for the legacy Java 8 LTS the last free public update in January 2019 for commercial use, while it will otherwise still support Java 8 with public updates for personal use up to at least December 2020. Oracle (and others) highly recommend uninstalling older versions of Java because of serious risks due to unresolved security issues.[21] Since Java 9, 10, 12 and 13 are no longer supported, Oracle advises its users to immediately transition to the latest version (currently Java 14) or an LTS release.