The mantra or name may be spoken softly, enough for the practitioner to hear it, or it may be spoken within the reciter's mind. Japa may be performed while sitting in a
The Sanskrit word japa is derived from the root jap-, meaning "to utter in a low voice, repeat internally, mutter". It can be further defined as ja to destroy birth, death, and
Monier-Williams states that the term appears in Vedic literature such as in the Aitereya
The concept of Japa is also found in early Buddhist texts, and is very common in Tibetan Buddhism literature.