illustrated title page "hugo the great of the truth of the christian worship." along with the earlier work of francisco de vitoria
and alberico gentili
, hugo grotius
laid the foundations for international law.
international law, also known as public international law and law of nations, is the set of rules, norms, and standards generally accepted in relations between nations. it establishes normative guidelines and a common conceptual framework to guide states across a broad range of domains, including war, diplomacy, trade, and human rights. international law thus provides a means for states to practice more stable, consistent, and organized international relations.
the sources of international law include international custom (general state practice accepted as law), treaties, and general principles of law recognized by most national legal systems. international law may also be reflected in international comity, the practices and customs adopted by states to maintain good relations and mutual recognition, such as saluting the flag of a foreign ship or enforcing a foreign judgment.
international law differs from state-based legal systems in that it is primarily—though not exclusively—applicable to countries, rather than to individuals, and operates largely through consent, since there is no universally accepted authority to enforce it upon sovereign states. consequently, states may choose to not abide by international law, and even to break a treaty. however, such violations, particularly of customary international law and peremptory norms (jus cogens), can be met with coercive action, ranging from military intervention to diplomatic and economic pressure.
the relationship and interaction between a national legal system (municipal law) and international law is complex and variable. national law may become international law when treaties permit national jurisdiction to supranational tribunals such as the european court of human rights or the international criminal court. treaties such as the geneva conventions may require national law to conform to treaty provisions. national laws or constitutions may also provide for the implementation or integration of international legal obligations into domestic law.