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Hindu calendar is a collective term for the various
The ancient Hindu calendar conceptual design is also found in the Jewish calendar, but different from the Gregorian calendar. Unlike Gregorian calendar which adds additional days to lunar month to adjust for the mismatch between twelve lunar cycles (354 lunar days) and nearly 365 solar days, the Hindu calendar maintains the integrity of the lunar month, but insert an extra full month by complex rules, every few years, to ensure that the festivals and crop-related rituals fall in the appropriate season.
The Hindu calendars have been in use in the Indian subcontinent since ancient times, and remains in use by the
The Hindu calendar is also important to the practice of Hindu astrology and zodiac system.
[The current year] minus one,
multiplied by twelve,
multiplied by two,
added to the elapsed [half months of current year],
increased by two for every sixty [in the sun],
is the quantity of half-months (
— Rigveda Jyotisha-vedanga 4
Translator: Kim Plofker
Time keeping was important to Vedic rituals, and Jyotisha was the Vedic era field of tracking and predicting the movements of astronomical bodies in order to keep time, in order to fix the day and time of these rituals. This study was one of the six ancient
David Pingree has proposed that the field of timekeeping in Jyotisha may have been "derived from
Timekeeping as well as the nature of solar and moon movements are mentioned in Vedic texts. For example, Kaushitaki