Georgian Civil War

Georgian Civil War
Part of the Post-Soviet conflicts
1993 Georgia war1.svg
1993 Georgia war2.svg
Location of Georgia (including Abkhazia and South Ossetia) and the Russian part of North Caucasus
DateDecember 22, 1991 – December 31, 1993
(2 years, 1 week and 2 days)
Location
Result
  • Abkhazian and South Ossetian separatists gain control of most of their claims
  • The State Council takes control of Georgia proper
Belligerents

Georgia (country) Gamsakhurdia's government in exile

Georgia (country) State Council

Russia
South Ossetian Separatists
Abkhazia Abkhaz separatists
Confederation of Mountain Peoples of the Caucasus
Commanders and leaders
Georgia (country) Zviad Gamsakhurdia 
Georgia (country) Loti Kobalia
Georgia (country) Zurab Iremadze
Georgia (country) Akaki Eliava
Georgia (country) Eduard Shevardnadze
Georgia (country) Jaba Ioseliani
Georgia (country) Tengiz Kitovani
Georgia (country) Shota Kviraia
Georgia (country) Giorgi Karkarashvili
Russia Boris Yeltsin
Russia Ruslan Khasbulatov
South Ossetia Lyudvig Chibirov
Abkhazia Vladislav Ardzinba
Musa Shanibov
Shamil Basayev

The Georgian Civil War was a civil war in Georgia consisting of inter-ethnic and intranational conflicts in the regions of South Ossetia (1988–1992) and Abkhazia (1992–1993), as well as the violent military coup d'état of December 22, 1991 – December 31, 1993, against the first democratically elected President of Georgia, Zviad Gamsakhurdia and his subsequent uprising in an attempt to regain power (1993).

While the Gamsakhurdia rebellion was eventually defeated, the South Ossetia and Abkhazia conflicts resulted in the de facto secession of both regions from Georgia. As a result, both conflicts have lingered on, with occasional flare-ups.

Ethnic conflicts

Ethnic minority separatist movements – primarily on the part of the Ossetians and the Abkhaz, demanded fuller recognition in the new order of the early 1990s. Asserting its newly gained national prerogatives, Georgia responded with military attempts to restrain separatism forcibly. On January 5, 1991 Georgia's National Guard entered Tskhinvali, South Ossetian capital and fighting broke out in and around the city. The Georgian-Ossetian Conflict was the first major crisis faced by Gamsakhurdia's government.

At the time of the dissolution of the USSR, the United States government recognized as legitimate the pre-Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact 1933 borders of the country (the Franklin D. Roosevelt government established diplomatic relations with the Kremlin at the end of that year[1]). Because of this, the George H. W. Bush administration openly supported the secession of the Baltic SSRs, but regarded the questions related to the independence and territorial conflicts of Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan and the rest of the Transcaucasus — which were integral part of the USSR with international borders unaltered since the 1920s — as internal Soviet affairs.[2]