"chant du départ" (de facto)
(english: "song of the departure")
the first french empire at its greatest extent in 1812:
|common languages||french (official)|
|religion ||roman catholicism|
|government||constitutionally absolute monarchy|
|napoleon iinote 2|
|historical era||french revolutionary wars|
|18 may 1804|
of napoleon i
|2 december 1804|
|7 july 1807|
|24 june 1812|
• treaty of fontainebleau
|11 april 1814|
|20 march – 7 july 1815|
|1812||2,100,000 km2 (810,000 sq mi)|
|iso 3166 code||fr|
the first french empire, officially the french empire (french: empire français; latin: imperium francicum),note 1 was the empire of napoleon bonaparte of france and the dominant power in much of continental europe at the beginning of the 19th century. although france had already established an overseas colonial empire beginning in the 17th century, the french state had remained a kingdom under the bourbons and a republic after the french revolution. historians refer to napoleon's regime as the first empire to distinguish it from the restorationist second empire (1852–1870) ruled by his nephew napoleon iii.
on 18 may 1804, napoleon was granted the title emperor of the french (l'empereur des français, pronounced [lɑ̃.pʁœʁ de fʁɑ̃.sɛ]) by the french sénat (senate) and was crowned on 2 december 1804, signifying the end of the french consulate and of the french first republic. the french empire achieved military supremacy in mainland europe through notable victories in the war of the third coalition against austria, prussia, russia, and allied nations, notably at the battle of austerlitz in 1805. french dominance was reaffirmed during the war of the fourth coalition, at the battle of jena–auerstedt in 1806 and the battle of friedland in 1807, before napoleon's final defeat at the battle of waterloo in 1815.
a series of wars, known collectively as the napoleonic wars, extended french influence to much of western europe and into poland. at its height in 1812, the french empire had 130 departments, ruled over 70 million subjects, maintained an extensive military presence in germany, italy, spain, and the duchy of warsaw, and counted austria and prussia as nominal allies. early french victories exported many ideological features of the revolution throughout europe: the introduction of the napoleonic code throughout the continent increased legal equality, established jury systems and legalised divorce, and seigneurial dues and seigneurial justice were abolished, as were aristocratic privileges in all places except poland. france's defeat in 1814 (and then again in 1815), marked the end of the empire.