Ferdinand Marcos


Ferdinand Marcos
Ferdinand Marcos.JPEG
Marcos in 1982
10th President of the Philippines
In office
December 30, 1965 – February 25, 1986
Prime MinisterHimself (1978–1981)
Cesar Virata (1981–1986)
Vice PresidentFernando López (1965–1973)
Preceded byDiosdado Macapagal
Succeeded byCorazon Aquino
3rd Prime Minister of the Philippines
In office
June 12, 1978 – June 30, 1981
Preceded byOffice established
(Position previously held by Jorge B. Vargas as Ministries involved)
Succeeded byCesar Virata
Secretary of National Defense
In office
August 28, 1971 – January 3, 1972
PresidentHimself
Preceded byJuan Ponce Enrile
Succeeded byJuan Ponce Enrile
In office
December 31, 1965 – January 20, 1967
PresidentHimself
Preceded byMacario Peralta
Succeeded byErnesto Mata
11th President of the Senate of the Philippines
In office
April 5, 1963 – December 30, 1965
PresidentDiosdado Macapagal
Preceded byEulogio Rodriguez
Succeeded byArturo Tolentino
Senator of the Philippines
In office
December 30, 1959 – December 30, 1965
Member of the Philippine House of Representatives from Ilocos Norte's 2nd District
In office
December 30, 1949 – December 30, 1959
Preceded byPedro Albano
Succeeded bySimeon M. Valdez
Personal details
Born
Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos

(1917-09-11)September 11, 1917
Sarrat, Ilocos Norte, Philippine Islands
DiedSeptember 28, 1989(1989-09-28) (aged 72)
Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.
Resting placeFerdinand E. Marcos Presidential Center, Batac, Ilocos Norte
(1993–2016)
Heroes' Cemetery, Taguig, Metro Manila
(since November 18, 2016)
Political partyKilusang Bagong Lipunan (1978–1989)
Other political
affiliations
Liberal Party (1946–1965)
Nacionalista Party (1965–1978)
Spouse(s)
Children
Alma materUniversity of the Philippines
Profession
Signature
Military service
Allegiance Philippines / United States[a]
RankFirst lieutenant
Major
Unit21st Infantry Division (USAFFE)
14th Infantry Regiment (USAFIP-NL)
Battles/warsWorld War II

Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos Sr. (s/,[2] September 11, 1917 – September 28, 1989) was a Filipino politician and kleptocrat[3][4][5][6][7][8][9] who was the tenth President of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986.[10] A leading member of the far-right New Society Movement, he ruled as a dictator[4][11][12][13] under martial law from 1972 until 1981.[14] His regime was infamous for its corruption,[15][16][17][18] extravagance,[19][20][21] and brutality.[22][23][24]

Marcos claimed an active part in World War II, including fighting alongside the Americans in the Bataan Death March and being the "most decorated war hero in the Philippines".[25] A number of his claims were found to be false[26][27][28][29][30] and the United States Army documents described Marcos's wartime claims as "fraudulent" and "absurd".[31]

Marcos started as an attorney, then served in the Philippine House of Representatives from 1949 to 1959 and the Philippine Senate from 1959 to 1965. He was elected President in 1965, and presided over a growing economy during the beginning and intermediate portion of his 20-year rule,[32] but ended in loss of livelihood, extreme poverty, and a crushing debt crisis.[33][34][35] Marcos placed the Philippines under martial law on September 23, 1972,[36][37][38] during which he revamped the constitution, silenced the media,[39] and used violence and oppression[24] against the political opposition,[40] Muslims, communists,[41] and ordinary citizens.[42] Martial law was ratified by 90.77% of the voters during the Philippine Martial Law referendum, 1973 though the referendum was marred with controversy.[43][44]

After being elected for a third term in the 1981 Philippine presidential election, Marcos's popularity suffered greatly due to public outrage of the assassination of Benigno Aquino Jr. in 1983. The assassination, along with economic collapse, revitalized the opposition, resulting in them securing a better than expected victory in the 1984 Philippine parliamentary election. Both of these factors alongside growing discontent and the discovery of documents exposing his finances and falsified war records, led him to call the snap elections of 1986. Allegations of mass cheating, political turmoil, and human rights abuses led to the People Power Revolution in February 1986, which removed him from power.[45] To avoid what could have been a military confrontation in Manila between pro- and anti-Marcos troops, Marcos was advised by US President Ronald Reagan through Senator Paul Laxalt to "cut and cut cleanly",[46] after which Marcos fled to Hawaii.[47] Marcos was succeeded by Corazon "Cory" Aquino, widow of the assassinated opposition leader Senator Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino Jr. who had flown back to the Philippines to face Marcos.[45][48][49][50]

According to source documents provided by the Presidential Commission on Good Government (PCGG),[51][52][53] the Marcos family stole US$5–10 billion.[54] The PCGG also maintained that the Marcos family enjoyed a decadent lifestyle, taking away billions of dollars[51][53] from the Philippines[55][56] between 1965 and 1986. His wife Imelda Marcos, whose excesses during the couple's conjugal dictatorship[57][58][59] made her infamous in her own right, spawned the term "Imeldific".[22][60][61][62] Two of their children, Imee Marcos and Ferdinand "Bongbong" Marcos Jr., are still active in Philippine politics.

Early life

Ferdinand Edralin Marcos was born on September 11, 1917, in the town of Sarrat, Ilocos Norte, to Mariano Marcos and Josefa Edralin (1893–1988).[63]

Parents

Mariano Marcos was a lawyer and Congressman from Ilocos Norte, Philippines[64] who was later killed in the waning days of World War II.[65][66]

Josefa Marcos was a schoolteacher who would far outlive her husband - dying in 1988 two years after the Marcos family left her in Malacanang Palace when they fled into exile after the 1986 People Power Revolution.[67]

Baptism

Ferdinand was baptized into the Philippine Independent Church,[68] but was baptized in the Roman Catholic Church at the age of three.[according to whom?]

Education

Marcos studied law at the University of the Philippines in Manila, attending the College of Law. He excelled in both curricular and extra-curricular activities, becoming a valuable[editorializing] member of the university's swimming, boxing, and wrestling teams. He was also an accomplished and prolific[editorializing] orator, debater, and writer for the student newspaper. While attending the UP College of Law, he became a member of the Upsilon Sigma Phi, where he met his future colleagues in government and some of his staunchest critics.[69][70]

When he sat for the 1939 Bar Examinations, he was the bar topnotcher (top scorer),[clarification needed] with a near-perfect[peacock term] score of 98.8%, but allegations of cheating prompted the Philippine Supreme Court to re-calibrate his score to 92.35%.[71] He graduated cum laude.[citation needed] He was elected to the Pi Gamma Mu and the Phi Kappa Phi international honor societies, the latter giving him its Most Distinguished Member Award 37 years later.[72]