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. (april 2016)
|roman province of egypt|provincia aegypti (latin)Ἐπαρχία Αἰγύπτουeparchía aigýptou (ancient greek)
|province of the roman empire|
|30 bc–619 ad;|
629 ad–641 ad
province of aegyptus in ad 125.
|historical era||classic antiquity|
• conquest of ptolemaic kingdom
• formation of the diocese
|today part of||egypt|
the roman province of egypt (latin: aegyptus, pronounced [ae̯ˈɡʏptʊs]; hellenistic greek: Αἴγυπτος, romanized: aígyptos, pronounced [ɛ́ːɡyptos]) was established in 30 bc after octavian (the future roman emperor augustus) defeated his rival mark antony, deposed pharaoh cleopatra, and annexed the ptolemaic kingdom to the roman empire. the province encompassed most of modern-day egypt except for the sinai peninsula (which would later be conquered by trajan). aegyptus was bordered by the provinces of crete and cyrenaica to the west and judea (later arabia petraea) to the east.
the province came to serve as a major producer of grain for the empire and had a highly developed urban economy. aegyptus was by far the wealthiest eastern roman province, and by far the wealthiest roman province outside of italia. in alexandria, its capital, it possessed the largest port, and the second largest city of the roman empire.
the population of roman egypt is unknown; estimates vary from 4 to 8 million.