Digital object identifier
|Organisation||International DOI Foundation|
In computing, a digital object identifier (DOI) is a
A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to
The DOI for a document remains fixed over the lifetime of the document, whereas its location and other metadata may change. Referring to an online document by its DOI is supposed to provide a more stable link than simply using its URL. But every time a URL changes, the publisher has to update the metadata for the DOI to link to the new URL. It is the publisher's responsibility to update the DOI database. If they fail to do so, the DOI resolves to a
The developer and administrator of the DOI system is the International DOI Foundation (IDF), which introduced it in 2000. Organizations that meet the contractual obligations of the DOI system and are willing to pay to become a member of the system can assign DOIs. The DOI system is implemented through a federation of registration agencies coordinated by the IDF. By late April 2011 more than 50 million DOI names had been assigned by some 4,000 organizations, and by April 2013 this number had grown to 85 million DOI names assigned through 9,500 organizations.
A DOI is a type of Handle System handle, which takes the form of a
The prefix identifies the registrant of the identifier, and the suffix is chosen by the registrant and identifies the specific object associated with that DOI. Most legal
NNNN is at least a four digit number greater than or equal to
1000, whose limit depends only on the total number of registrants. The prefix may be further subdivided with periods, like
For example, in the DOI name
10.1000/182, the prefix is
10.1000 and the suffix is
182. The "10." part of the prefix distinguishes the handle as part of the DOI namespace, as opposed to some other Handle System namespace,[A] and the characters
1000 in the prefix identify the registrant; in this case the registrant is the International DOI Foundation itself.
182 is the suffix, or item ID, identifying a single object (in this case, the latest version of the DOI Handbook).
DOI names can identify creative works (such as texts, images, audio or video items, and software) in both electronic and physical forms,
The names can refer to objects at varying levels of detail: thus DOI names can identify a journal, an individual issue of a journal, an individual article in the journal, or a single table in that article. The choice of level of detail is left to the assigner, but in the DOI system it must be declared as part of the metadata that is associated with a DOI name, using a data dictionary based on the
The official DOI Handbook explicitly states that DOIs should display on screens and in print in the format
Contrary to the DOI Handbook,
The CrossRef recommendation is primarily based on the assumption that the DOI is being displayed without being hyperlinked to its appropriate URL – the argument being that without the hyperlink it is not as easy to copy-and-paste the full URL to actually bring up the page for the DOI, thus the entire URL should be displayed, allowing people viewing the page containing the DOI to copy-and-paste the URL, by hand, into a new window/tab in their