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divisions of france
- communauté urbaine
- communauté d'agglomération
- communauté de communes
- associated communes
- municipal arrondissements
- overseas departments and regions
- overseas collectivities
- sui generis collectivity
- overseas country
- overseas territory
- clipperton island
in the administrative divisions of france, the department (french: département, pronounced [depaʁt(ə)mɑ̃]) is one of the three levels of government below the national level ("territorial collectivities"), between the administrative regions and the commune. ninety-five departments are in metropolitan france, and five are overseas departments, which are also classified as regions. departments are further subdivided into 334 arrondissements, themselves divided into cantons; the last two have no autonomy, and are used for the organisation of police, fire departments, and sometimes, elections.
each department is administered by an elected body called a departmental council (conseil départemental [sing.], conseils départementaux [plur.]). from 1800 to april 2015, these were called general councils (conseil général sing. conseils généraux [plur.]). each council has a president. their main areas of responsibility include the management of a number of social and welfare allowances, of junior high school (collège) buildings and technical staff, and local roads and school and rural buses, and a contribution to municipal infrastructures. local services of the state administration are traditionally organised at departmental level, where the prefect represents the government; however, regions have gained importance since the 2000s, with some department-level services merged into region-level services.
the departments were created in 1790 as a rational replacement of ancien régime provinces with a view to strengthen national unity; the title "department" is used to mean a part of a larger whole. almost all of them were named after physical geographical features (rivers, mountains, or coasts), rather than after historical or cultural territories which could have their own loyalties. the division of france into departments was a project particularly identified with the french revolutionary leader the abbé sieyès, although it had already been frequently discussed and written about by many politicians and thinkers. the earliest known suggestion of it is from 1764 in the writings of d'argenson. they have inspired similar divisions in many countries, some of them former french colonies.
most french departments are assigned a two-digit number, the "official geographical code", allocated by the institut national de la statistique et des études économiques. overseas departments have a three-digit number. the number is used, for example, in the postal code, and was until recently used for all vehicle registration plates. while residents commonly use the numbers to refer to their own department or a neighbouring one, more distant departments are generally referred to by their names, as few people know the numbers of all the departments. for example, inhabitants of loiret might refer to their department as "the 45".
in 2014, president françois hollande proposed to abolish departmental councils by 2020, which would have maintained the departments as administrative divisions, and to transfer their powers to other levels of governance. this reform project has since been abandoned.