Czech Republic

Czech Republic

Česká republika  (Czech)
Motto: "Pravda vítězí" (Czech)
"Truth prevails"
Anthem: 
Location of the Czech Republic (dark green) – in Europe (green & dark grey) – in the European Union (green)  –  [Legend]
Location of the Czech Republic (dark green)

– in Europe (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union (green)  –  [Legend]

Location of the Czech Republic
Capital
and largest city
Prague
50°05′N 14°28′E / 50°05′N 14°28′E / 50.083; 14.467
Official languageCzech[1]
Officially recognized languages[2][3]
Ethnic groups
(2016[4][5])
Religion
(2011)[6]
  • 44.7% Undeclared
  • 34.5% Non-religious
  • 10.5% Catholic
  • 2.1% Other Christians
  • 0.7% Other religions
Demonym(s)Czech
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary
constitutional republic
• President
Miloš Zeman
Andrej Babiš
LegislatureParliament
Senate
Chamber of Deputies
Establishment history
c. 870
1198
28 October 1918
1 January 1969
• Czech Republic became independent
1 January 1993
1 May 2004
Area
• Total
78,866 km2 (30,450 sq mi) (115th)
• Water (%)
2
Population
• 2019 estimate
Increase 10,649,800[7] (84th)
• 2011 census
10,436,560[8]
• Density
134/km2 (347.1/sq mi) (87th)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
Increase $413.119 billion[9] (36th)
• Per capita
Increase $38,834[9] (34th)
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
Increase $246.953 billion[9] (36th)
• Per capita
Increase $23,214[9] (37th)
Gini (2018)Positive decrease 24.0[10]
low · 5th
HDI (2018)Increase 0.891[11]
very high · 26th
CurrencyCzech koruna (CZK)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+2 (CEST)
Driving sideright
Calling code+420b
ISO 3166 codeCZ
Internet TLD.czc
  1. The question is rhetorical, implying "those places where my homeland lies".
  2. Code 42 was shared with Slovakia until 1997.
  3. Also .eu, shared with other European Union member states.

The Czech Republic ( -/ (About this soundlisten);[12] Czech: Česká republika [ˈtʃɛskaː ˈrɛpublɪka] (About this soundlisten)),[13] also known by its short-form name, Czechia[14] (ə/ (About this soundlisten); Czech: Česko [ˈtʃɛsko] (About this soundlisten)), is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east, and Poland to the northeast.[15] The Czech Republic is a landlocked country with a hilly landscape that covers an area of 78,866 square kilometers (30,450 sq mi) with a mostly temperate continental climate and oceanic climate. It is a unitary parliamentary republic, with 10.7 million inhabitants. Its capital and largest city is Prague, with 1.3 million residents; other major cities are Brno, Ostrava, Olomouc and Pilsen.

The Czech Republic includes the historical territories of Bohemia,[16] Moravia, and Czech Silesia. The Czech state was formed in the late ninth century as the Duchy of Bohemia under the Great Moravian Empire. In 1002, the duchy was formally recognized as an Imperial State of the Holy Roman Empire along with the Kingdom of Germany, the Kingdom of Burgundy, the Kingdom of Italy; and became the Kingdom of Bohemia in 1198, reaching its greatest territorial extent in the 14th century.[17][18] Prague was the imperial seat in periods between the 14th and 17th century. The Protestant Bohemian Reformation of the 15th century led to the Hussite Wars, the first of many conflicts with the Catholic Church.

Following the Battle of Mohács in 1526, the whole Crown of Bohemia was gradually integrated into the Habsburg Monarchy. The Protestant Bohemian Revolt (1618–20) against the Catholic Habsburgs led to the Thirty Years' War. After the Battle of the White Mountain, the Habsburgs consolidated their rule, eradicated Protestantism, reimposed Catholicism, and adopted a policy of gradual Germanization. This contributed to anti-Habsburg sentiment and resentment of the Catholic Church that continues to this day.[19][20][21][22] With the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, the Bohemian Kingdom became part of the Austrian Empire (1804 to 1867) and the Czech language experienced a revival as a consequence of widespread romantic nationalism. In the 19th century, the Czech lands became the industrial powerhouse of the monarchy and were subsequently the core of the First Czechoslovak Republic, which was formed in 1918 following the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire after World War I.

Czechoslovakia was the only democracy in Central Europe during the interwar period.[23] However, parts of the country were occupied by Germany in World War II, while the Slovak region became a German puppet state. Czechoslovakia was liberated in 1945 by the Soviet Union and the United States. Most of the German-speaking minority were expelled following the war. The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia won the 1946 elections and after the 1948 coup d'état established a one-party communist state under Soviet influence. Increasing dissatisfaction with the regime culminated in 1968 to the reform movement known as the Prague Spring, which ended in a Soviet-led invasion. Czechoslovakia remained occupied until the 1989 Velvet Revolution, which peacefully ended communist rule and reestablished democracy and a market economy. On 1 January 1993, Czechoslovakia peacefully dissolved, with its constituent states becoming the independent states of the Czech Republic and Slovakia.

The Czech Republic is a developed country with an advanced, high income social market economy.[24][25][26] It is a welfare state with a European social model, universal health care, and tuition-free university education. It ranks 13th in the UN inequality-adjusted human development and 14th in the World Bank Human Capital Index ahead of countries such as the United States, the United Kingdom and France. It ranks as the eleventh safest and most peaceful country and performs strongly in democratic governance. The Czech Republic joined NATO in 1999 and the European Union (EU) in 2004. It is also a member of the OECD, the United Nations, the OSCE, and the Council of Europe.

Name

Historical affiliations

The traditional English name "Bohemia" derives from Latin "Boiohaemum", which means "home of the Boii". The current English name comes from the Polish ethnonym associated with the area, which ultimately comes from the Czech word Čech.[27][28][29] The name comes from the Slavic tribe (Czech: Češi, Čechové) and, according to legend, their leader Čech, who brought them to Bohemia, to settle on Říp Mountain. The etymology of the word Čech can be traced back to the Proto-Slavic root *čel-, meaning "member of the people; kinsman", thus making it cognate to the Czech word člověk (a person).[30]

The country has been traditionally divided into three lands, namely Bohemia (Čechy) in the west, Moravia (Morava) in the east, and Czech Silesia (Slezsko; the smaller, south-eastern part of historical Silesia, most of which is located within modern Poland) in the northeast. Known as the lands of the Bohemian Crown since the 14th century, a number of other names for the country have been used, including Czech/Bohemian lands, Bohemian Crown, Czechia [31] and the lands of the Crown of Saint Wenceslas. When the country regained its independence after the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian empire in 1918, the new name of Czechoslovakia was coined to reflect the union of the Czech and Slovak nations within the one country.

After Czechoslovakia dissolved in 1992, the new Czech state lacked a common English short name. The Czech Ministry of Foreign Affairs recommended the English name Czechia in 1993, and the Czech government approved Czechia as the official short name in 2016.[32]