Republic of Cuba

República de Cuba  (Spanish)
"¡Patria o Muerte, Venceremos!" (Spanish)
"Homeland or Death, we shall overcome!"[1]
Anthem: La Bayamesa
Bayamo Song [2]
CUB orthographic.svg
Location of Cuba
and largest city
23°8′N 82°23′W / 23°8′N 82°23′W / 23.133; -82.383
Official languagesSpanish
Ethnic groups
GovernmentUnitary Marxist–Leninist one-party socialist republic[4]
Raúl Castro
• President
Miguel Díaz-Canel
Salvador Valdés Mesa
José Machado Ventura
Esteban Lazo Hernández
LegislatureNational Assembly of People's Power
10 October 1868
24 February 1895
• Recognized (handed over from Spain to the United States)
10 December 1898
• Republic declared (independence from United States)
20 May 1902
26 July 1953 – 1 January 1959
• Current constitution
10 April 2019
• Total
109,884 km2 (42,426 sq mi) (104th)
• Water (%)
• 2018 census
Decrease 11,209,628[5] (82nd)
• Density
102.1/km2 (264.4/sq mi) (114th)
GDP (PPP)2015 estimate
• Total
US$ 254.865 billion[6]
• Per capita
US$ 22,237[6][7]
GDP (nominal)2017 estimate
• Total
US$ 96.851 billion[8] (63rd)
• Per capita
US$ 8,433[9] (76th)
Gini (2000)38.0[10]
HDI (2017)Increase 0.777[11]
high · 73rd
Currency (CUC)
Time zoneUTC−5 (CST)
• Summer (DST)
Driving sideright
Calling code+53
ISO 3166 codeCU
  1. From 1993 to 2004, the United States dollar was used alongside the peso, until the dollar was replaced by the convertible peso.

Cuba (ə/ (About this soundlisten); Spanish pronunciation: [ˈkuβa]), officially the Republic of Cuba (Spanish: About this soundRepública de Cuba ), is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos. Cuba is located in the northern Caribbean where the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean meet. It is east of the Yucatán Peninsula (Mexico), south of both the U.S. state of Florida and the Bahamas, west of Haiti and north of both Jamaica and the Cayman Islands. Havana is the largest city and capital; other major cities include Santiago de Cuba and Camagüey. The area of the Republic of Cuba is 110,860 square kilometers (42,800 sq mi) (109,884 square kilometers (42,426 sq mi) without the territorial waters). The island of Cuba is the largest island in Cuba and in the Caribbean, with an area of 105,006 square kilometers (40,543 sq mi), and the second-most populous after Hispaniola, with over 11 million inhabitants.[12]

The territory that is now Cuba was inhabited by the Ciboney Taíno people from the 4th millennium BC until Spanish colonization in the 15th century.[13] From the 15th century, it was a colony of Spain until the Spanish–American War of 1898, when Cuba was occupied by the United States and gained nominal independence as a de facto United States protectorate in 1902. As a fragile republic, in 1940 Cuba attempted to strengthen its democratic system, but mounting political radicalization and social strife culminated in a coup and subsequent dictatorship under Fulgencio Batista in 1952.[14] Open corruption and oppression under Batista's rule led to his ousting in January 1959 by the 26th of July Movement, which afterwards established communist rule under the leadership of Fidel Castro.[15][16][17] Since 1965, the state has been governed by the Communist Party of Cuba. The country was a point of contention during the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, and a nuclear war nearly broke out during the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962. Cuba is one of a few extant Marxist–Leninist socialist states, where the role of the vanguard Communist Party is enshrined in the Constitution. Independent observers have accused the Cuban government of numerous human rights abuses, including short-term arbitrary imprisonment.[18]

Culturally, Cuba is considered part of Latin America.[19] It is a multiethnic country whose people, culture and customs derive from diverse origins, including the aboriginal Taíno and Ciboney peoples, the long period of Spanish colonialism, the introduction of African slaves and a close relationship with the Soviet Union in the Cold War.

Cuba is a sovereign state and a founding member of the United Nations, the G77, the Non-Aligned Movement, the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States, ALBA and Organization of American States. It has currently one of the world's only planned economies, and its economy is dominated by the exports of sugar, tobacco, coffee and skilled labor. According to the Human Development Index, Cuba has high human development and is ranked the eighth highest in North America, though 67th in the world.[20] It also ranks highly in some metrics of national performance, including health care and education.[21][22] It is the only country in the world to meet the conditions of sustainable development put forth by the WWF.[23]


Historians believe the name Cuba comes from the Taíno language, however "its exact derivation [is] unknown".[24] The exact meaning of the name is unclear but it may be translated either as 'where fertile land is abundant' (cubao),[25] or 'great place' (coabana).[26]

Fringe theory writers who believe that Christopher Columbus was Portuguese state that Cuba was named by Columbus for the town of Cuba in the district of Beja in Portugal.[27][28]