Costa Rica

  • republic of costa rica

    república de costa rica  (spanish)
    flag of costa rica
    flag
    coat of arms of costa rica
    coat of arms
    anthem: "noble patria, tu hermosa bandera" (spanish)
    "noble fatherland, your beautiful flag"
    location of costa rica
    location of costa rica
    capital
    and largest city
    san josé
    9°56′n 84°5′w / 9°56′n 84°5′w / 9.933; -84.083
    official languagesspanish
    recognized regional languages
    • mekatelyu
    • bribri
    • patois
    ethnic groups
    (2011[2])
    • 83.6% white/castizo or mestizo
    • 6.7% mulatto
    • 2.4% amerindian
    • 1.1% black (of african descent)
    • 6.2% others[1]
    religion
    (2017)[3]
    52% catholic (official christian religion)
    22% protestant
    17% irreligion
    3% buddhism and others
    3% unknown
    demonym(s)
    • costa rican
    • tico(a)
    governmentunitary presidential constitutional republic
    • president
    carlos alvarado
    • 1st vice-president
    epsy campbell barr
    • 2nd vice-president
    marvin rodríguez
    legislaturelegislative assembly
    independence declared
    • from spain
    15 september 1821
    • from first mexican empire
    1 july 1823
    • from the federal
    republic of
    central america
    1838
    • recognized by spain
    10 may 1850
    • constitution
    7 november 1949[2]
    area
    • total
    51,100 km2 (19,700 sq mi) (126th)
    • water (%)
    0.7
    population
    • 2018 estimate
    4,999,441[4][5] (123rd)
    • density
    220/sq mi (84.9/km2) (107th)
    gdp (ppp)2020 estimate
    • total
    $95.791 billion[6]
    • per capita
    $18,651[6]
    gdp (nominal)2020 estimate
    • total
    $65.179 billion[6]
    • per capita
    $12,690[6]
    gini (2017)positive decrease 48.3[7]
    high
    hdi (2018)increase 0.794[8]
    high · 68th
    currencycosta rican colón (crc)
    time zoneutc−6 (cst)
    driving sideright
    calling code+506
    iso 3166 codecr
    internet tld.cr
    .co.cr

    costa rica (ə/, us: ə/ (about this soundlisten); spanish: [ˈkosta ˈrika]; literally "rich coast"), officially the republic of costa rica (spanish: república de costa rica), is a country in central america, bordered by nicaragua to the north, the caribbean sea to the northeast, panama to the southeast, the pacific ocean to the southwest, and ecuador to the south of cocos island. it has a population of around 5 million[4][5] in a land area of 51,060 square kilometers (19,714 square miles). an estimated 333,980 people live in the capital and largest city, san josé, with around 2 million people in the surrounding metropolitan area.[9]

    the sovereign state is a unitary presidential constitutional republic. it is known for its long-standing and stable democracy, and for its highly educated workforce, most of whom speak english.[10] the country spends roughly 6.9% of its budget (2016) on education, compared to a global average of 4.4%.[10] its economy, once heavily dependent on agriculture, has diversified to include sectors such as finance, corporate services for foreign companies, pharmaceuticals, and ecotourism. many foreign manufacturing and services companies operate in costa rica's free trade zones (ftz) where they benefit from investment and tax incentives.[11]

    costa rica was sparsely inhabited by indigenous peoples before coming under spanish rule in the 16th century. it remained a peripheral colony of the empire until independence as part of the first mexican empire, followed by membership in the united provinces of central america, from which it formally declared independence in 1847. following the brief costa rican civil war in 1948, it permanently abolished its army in 1949, becoming one of only a few sovereign nations without a standing army.[12][13][14]

    the country has consistently performed favorably in the human development index (hdi), placing 63rd in the world as of 2017, among the highest of any latin american nation.[15] it has also been cited by the united nations development programme (undp) as having attained much higher human development than other countries at the same income levels, with a better record on human development and inequality than the median of the region.[16]

    costa rica also has progressive environmental policies. it is the only country to meet all five undp criteria established to measure environmental sustainability.[17] it was ranked 42nd in the world, and third in the americas, in the 2016 environmental performance index,[18] and was twice ranked the best performing country in the new economics foundation's (nef) happy planet index, which measures environmental sustainability,[19][20] and was identified by the nef as the greenest country in the world in 2009.[21] costa rica plans to become a carbon-neutral country by 2021.[22][23][24] by 2019, 99.62% of its electricity was generated from green sources[25][26] particularly hydro, wind, geothermal and solar.[27]

  • history
  • geography
  • economy
  • government and politics
  • demographics
  • culture
  • education
  • health
  • see also
  • references
  • further reading
  • external links

Republic of Costa Rica

República de Costa Rica  (Spanish)
Anthem: "Noble patria, tu hermosa bandera" (Spanish)
"Noble fatherland, your beautiful flag"
Location of Costa Rica
Location of Costa Rica
Capital
and largest city
San José
9°56′N 84°5′W / 9°56′N 84°5′W / 9.933; -84.083
Official languagesSpanish
Recognized regional languages
Ethnic groups
(2011[2])
Religion
(2017)[3]
52% Catholic (official Christian religion)
22% Protestant
17% Irreligion
3% Buddhism and others
3% Unknown
Demonym(s)
GovernmentUnitary presidential constitutional republic
• President
Carlos Alvarado
Epsy Campbell Barr
Marvin Rodríguez
LegislatureLegislative Assembly
Independence declared
• from Spain
15 September 1821
1 July 1823
1838
• Recognized by Spain
10 May 1850
• Constitution
7 November 1949[2]
Area
• Total
51,100 km2 (19,700 sq mi) (126th)
• Water (%)
0.7
Population
• 2018 estimate
4,999,441[4][5] (123rd)
• Density
220/sq mi (84.9/km2) (107th)
GDP (PPP)2020 estimate
• Total
$95.791 billion[6]
• Per capita
$18,651[6]
GDP (nominal)2020 estimate
• Total
$65.179 billion[6]
• Per capita
$12,690[6]
Gini (2017)Positive decrease 48.3[7]
high
HDI (2018)Increase 0.794[8]
high · 68th
CurrencyCosta Rican colón (CRC)
Time zoneUTC−6 (CST)
Driving sideright
Calling code+506
ISO 3166 codeCR
Internet TLD.cr
.co.cr

Costa Rica (ə/, US: ə/ (About this soundlisten); Spanish: [ˈkosta ˈrika]; literally "Rich Coast"), officially the Republic of Costa Rica (Spanish: República de Costa Rica), is a country in Central America, bordered by Nicaragua to the north, the Caribbean Sea to the northeast, Panama to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, and Ecuador to the south of Cocos Island. It has a population of around 5 million[4][5] in a land area of 51,060 square kilometers (19,714 square miles). An estimated 333,980 people live in the capital and largest city, San José, with around 2 million people in the surrounding metropolitan area.[9]

The sovereign state is a unitary presidential constitutional republic. It is known for its long-standing and stable democracy, and for its highly educated workforce, most of whom speak English.[10] The country spends roughly 6.9% of its budget (2016) on education, compared to a global average of 4.4%.[10] Its economy, once heavily dependent on agriculture, has diversified to include sectors such as finance, corporate services for foreign companies, pharmaceuticals, and ecotourism. Many foreign manufacturing and services companies operate in Costa Rica's Free Trade Zones (FTZ) where they benefit from investment and tax incentives.[11]

Costa Rica was sparsely inhabited by indigenous peoples before coming under Spanish rule in the 16th century. It remained a peripheral colony of the empire until independence as part of the First Mexican Empire, followed by membership in the United Provinces of Central America, from which it formally declared independence in 1847. Following the brief Costa Rican Civil War in 1948, it permanently abolished its army in 1949, becoming one of only a few sovereign nations without a standing army.[12][13][14]

The country has consistently performed favorably in the Human Development Index (HDI), placing 63rd in the world as of 2017, among the highest of any Latin American nation.[15] It has also been cited by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) as having attained much higher human development than other countries at the same income levels, with a better record on human development and inequality than the median of the region.[16]

Costa Rica also has progressive environmental policies. It is the only country to meet all five UNDP criteria established to measure environmental sustainability.[17] It was ranked 42nd in the world, and third in the Americas, in the 2016 Environmental Performance Index,[18] and was twice ranked the best performing country in the New Economics Foundation's (NEF) Happy Planet Index, which measures environmental sustainability,[19][20] and was identified by the NEF as the greenest country in the world in 2009.[21] Costa Rica plans to become a carbon-neutral country by 2021.[22][23][24] By 2019, 99.62% of its electricity was generated from green sources[25][26] particularly hydro, wind, geothermal and solar.[27]