Computer network

A computer network is a digital telecommunications network which allows nodes to share resources. In computer networks, computing devices exchange data with each other using connections (data links) between nodes. These data links are established over cable media such as twisted pair or fiber-optic cables, and wireless media such as Wi-Fi.

Network computer devices that originate, route and terminate the data are called network nodes.[1] Nodes are generally identified by network addresses, and can include hosts such as personal computers, phones, and servers, as well as networking hardware such as routers and switches. Two such devices can be said to be networked together when one device is able to exchange information with the other device, whether or not they have a direct connection to each other. In most cases, application-specific communications protocols are layered (i.e. carried as payload) over other more general communications protocols. This formidable collection of information technology requires skilled network management to keep it all running reliably.

Computer networks support an enormous number of applications and services such as access to the World Wide Web, digital video, digital audio, shared use of application and storage servers, printers, and fax machines, and use of email and instant messaging applications as well as many others. Computer networks differ in the transmission medium used to carry their signals, bandwidth, communications protocols to organize network traffic, the network's size, topology, traffic control mechanism and organizational intent. The best-known computer network is the Internet.

History

The chronology of significant computer-network developments includes:

  • In the late 1950s, early networks of computers included the U.S. military radar system Semi-Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE).
  • In 1959, Christopher Strachey filed a patent application for time-sharing and John McCarthy initiated the first project to implement time-sharing of user programs at MIT.[2][3][4] Stratchey passed the concept on to J. C. R. Licklider at a UNESCO-sponsored conference on Information Processing in Paris in 1959.[5] McCarthy was instrumental in the creation of three of the earliest time-sharing systems (Compatible Time-Sharing System in 1961, BBN Time-Sharing System in 1962, and Dartmouth Time Sharing System in 1963).
  • In 1959, Anatolii Ivanovich Kitov proposed to the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union a detailed plan for the re-organisation of the control of the Soviet armed forces and of the Soviet economy on the basis of a network of computing centres, the OGAS.[6]
  • In 1959, the MOSFET (MOS transistor) was invented by Mohamed Atalla and Dawon Kahng at Bell Labs.[7] It later became the basic building block[8][9][10] of computer network communications infrastructure[11][12][13] such as transceivers, base station modules, routers, RF power amplifiers,[14] microprocessors, memory chips and telecommunication circuits.[15]
  • In 1960, the commercial airline reservation system semi-automatic business research environment (SABRE) went online with two connected mainframes.
  • In 1963, J. C. R. Licklider sent a memorandum to office colleagues discussing the concept of the "Intergalactic Computer Network", a computer network intended to allow general communications among computer users.
  • Throughout the 1960s, Paul Baran and Donald Davies independently developed the concept of packet switching to transfer information between computers over a network. Davies pioneered the implementation of the concept with the NPL network, a local area network at the National Physical Laboratory (United Kingdom) using a line speed of 768 kbit/s.[16][17][18]
  • In 1965, Western Electric introduced the first widely used telephone switch that implemented true computer control.
  • In 1969, the first four nodes of the ARPANET were connected using 50 kbit/s circuits between the University of California at Los Angeles, the Stanford Research Institute, the University of California at Santa Barbara, and the University of Utah.[19] Leonard Kleinrock carried out theoretical work to model the performance of packet-switched networks, which underpinned the development of the ARPANET.[20][21] His theoretical work on hierarchical routing in the late 1970s with student Farouk Kamoun remains critical to the operation of the Internet today.
  • In 1972, commercial services using X.25 were deployed, and later used as an underlying infrastructure for expanding TCP/IP networks.
  • In 1973, the French CYCLADES network was the first to make the hosts responsible for the reliable delivery of data, rather than this being a centralized service of the network itself.[22]
  • In 1973, Robert Metcalfe wrote a formal memo at Xerox PARC describing Ethernet, a networking system that was based on the Aloha network, developed in the 1960s by Norman Abramson and colleagues at the University of Hawaii. In July 1976, Robert Metcalfe and David Boggs published their paper "Ethernet: Distributed Packet Switching for Local Computer Networks"[23] and collaborated on several patents received in 1977 and 1978.
  • In 1974, the first TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) specification, 675 (Specification of Internet Transmission Control Program), was written by Vint Cerf, Yogen Dalal and Carl Sunshine. The paper coined the term "Internet" as a shorthand for internetworking.[24]
  • In 1976, John Murphy of Datapoint Corporation created ARCNET, a token-passing network first used to share storage devices.
  • 1977, first long-distance fiber network deployed by GTE in Long Beach, California.
  • In 1977, Xerox Network Systems (XNS) was developed by Robert Metcalfe and Yogen Dalal at Xerox.[25]
  • In 1979, Robert Metcalfe pursued making Ethernet an open standard.[26]
  • In 1980, Ethernet was upgraded from the original 2.94 Mbit/s protocol to the 10 Mbit/s protocol, which was developed by Ron Crane, Bob Garner, Roy Ogus,[27] and Yogen Dalal.[28]
  • In 1995, NSFNet was decommissioned and transitioned to the private sector.
  • In 1995, the transmission speed capacity for Ethernet increased from 10 Mbit/s to 100 Mbit/s. By 1998, Ethernet supported transmission speeds of a Gigabit. Subsequently, higher speeds of up to 400 Gbit/s were added (as of 2018). The ability of Ethernet to scale easily (such as quickly adapting to support new fiber optic cable speeds) is a contributing factor to its continued use.[26]