Communism in Korea

The Communist movement in Korea emerged as a political movement in the early 20th century. Although the movement had a minor role in pre-war politics, the division between the communist North Korea and the anti-communist South Korea came to dominate Korean political life in the post-World War II era. North Korea, officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, continues to be a Juche socialist state under the rule of the Workers' Party of Korea. In South Korea, communism remains illegal through the National Security Law.[1][2] Due to end of economic aid from Soviet Union after its dissolution in 1991 and impractical ideological application of Stalinist policies in North Korea over years of economic slowdown in the 1980s[3] and receding during the 1990s,[4]do North Korea replaced Communism with the Juche ideology in its 1992 and 1998 constitutional revisions[5] for the personality cult of Kim's family dictatorship and (albeit reluctanly) opening of North Korean market economy reform, though it still retains a command economy with complete state control of industry and agriculture. North Korea maintains collectivized farms and state-funded education and healthcare.

Early Korean communism

Alexandra Kim, a Korean who lived in Russia, is sometimes credited as the first Korean communist. She had joined the Bolsheviks in 1916.[6] In 1917, Vladimir Lenin sent her to Siberia to mobilize Koreans there against the counter-revolutionary forces and the Allied Expeditionary Forces. In Khabarovsk Kim was in charge of external affairs at the Far-Eastern Department of the Party. There she met with Yi Dong-Wi, Kim Rip and other Korean independence fighters. Together they founded the Korean People's Socialist Party, the first Korean communist party on June 28, 1918.[7][8][9][10]