Commonwealth of the Philippines

  • commonwealth of the philippines
    commonwealth de filipinas (spanish)[1][2]
    komonwelt ng pilipinas or malasariling pamahalaan ng pilipinas (tagalog)[3][4]
    1935–1942
    japanese occupation: 1942–45
    1945–1946
    flag of philippine commonwealth
    flag of the philippines (1946–1985, 1986–1998).svg
    flag of the united states (top)
    flag of the philippines (bottom)
    coat of arms of philippine commonwealth
    coat of arms
    motto: "e pluribus unum" (latin)[citation needed] (de facto)
    "out of many, one"
    "mula sa marami, isa"  (tagalog)
    anthem: the philippine hymn
    location of the philippines in southeast asia.
    location of the philippines in southeast asia.
    statusassociated state and protectorate of the united states
    capitalmanilaa
    common languages
    • spanish[5]
    • english[5]
    religion
    roman catholicism
    governmentunitary presidential constitutional republic under a commonwealth
    president 
    • 1935–44
    manuel l. quezon
    • 1944–46
    sergio osmeña
    • 1946
    manuel roxas
    high commissioner 
    • 1935–37
    frank murphy
    • 1937–39
    paul v. mcnutt
    • 1939–42
    francis bowes sayre
    • 1945–46
    paul v. mcnutt
    vice president 
    • 1935–44
    sergio osmeña
    • 1946
    elpidio quirino
    legislature
    • national assembly (1935–41)
    • congress (1945–46)
    historical erainterwar, world war ii
    • tydings–mcduffie act
    november 15, 1935[6][7][8][9]
    • independence
    july 4, 1946
    • treaty of manila
    october 22, 1946
    area
    1939343,385.1 km2 (132,581.7 sq mi)
    population
    • 1939
    16,000,303
    currencypeso
    driving sideleft (before 1945)
    right (after 1945)
    preceded by
    succeeded by
    insular government
    second philippine republic
    philippine executive commission
    third philippine republic
    today part of philippines
    1. capital held by enemy forces between 24 december 1941 and 27 february 1945. temporary capitals were
      • corregidor island from 24 december 1941;
      • iloilo city from 22 february 1942;
      • bacolod from 26 february;
      • buenos aires, bago city from 27 february;
      • oroquieta from 19 march;
      • bukidnon from 23 march;
      • government-in-exile in melbourne, australia, in april;
      • government-in-exile in washington, d.c., from may 1942 to october 1944;
      • tacloban from 20 october 1944.
      • the commonwealth government continued its existence as a government-in-exile in the united states during the japanese occupation and later as the third republic. in effect, there existed two philippine governments during the japanese occupation.

    the commonwealth of the philippines (spanish: commonwealth de filipinas;[1] tagalog: komonwelt ng pilipinas[3] or malasariling pamahalaan ng pilipinas[4]) was the administrative body that governed the philippines from 1935 to 1946, aside from a period of exile in the second world war from 1942 to 1945 when japan occupied the country. it replaced the insular government, a united states territorial government, and was established by the tydings–mcduffie act. the commonwealth was designed as a transitional administration in preparation for the country's full achievement of independence.[10] its foreign affairs remained managed by the united states.[11]

    during its more than a decade of existence, the commonwealth had a strong executive and a supreme court. its legislature, dominated by the nacionalista party, was at first unicameral, but later bicameral. in 1937, the government selected tagalog – the language of manila and its surrounding provinces – as the basis of the national language, although it would be many years before its usage became general. women's suffrage was adopted and the economy recovered to its pre-depression level before the japanese occupation in 1942.

    the commonwealth government went into exile from 1942 to 1945, when the philippines was under japanese occupation. in 1946, the commonwealth ended and the philippines claimed full sovereignty as provided for in article xviii of the 1935 constitution.[12]

  • names
  • history
  • policies
  • economy
  • demographics
  • government
  • politics
  • see also
  • notes
  • references
  • bibliography
  • external links

Commonwealth of the Philippines
Commonwealth de Filipinas (Spanish)[1][2]
Komonwelt ng Pilipinas or Malasariling Pamahalaan ng Pilipinas (Tagalog)[3][4]
1935–1942
Japanese occupation: 1942–45
1945–1946
Motto: "E pluribus unum" (Latin)[citation needed] (de facto)
"Out of many, one"
"Mula sa marami, isa"  (Tagalog)
Location of the Philippines in Southeast Asia.
Location of the Philippines in Southeast Asia.
StatusAssociated state and protectorate of the United States
CapitalManilaa
Common languages
Religion
Roman Catholicism
GovernmentUnitary presidential constitutional republic under a commonwealth
President 
• 1935–44
Manuel L. Quezon
• 1944–46
Sergio Osmeña
• 1946
Manuel Roxas
High Commissioner 
• 1935–37
Frank Murphy
• 1937–39
Paul V. McNutt
• 1939–42
Francis Bowes Sayre
• 1945–46
Paul V. McNutt
Vice President 
• 1935–44
Sergio Osmeña
• 1946
Elpidio Quirino
Legislature
Historical eraInterwar, World War II
November 15, 1935[6][7][8][9]
July 4, 1946
October 22, 1946
Area
1939343,385.1 km2 (132,581.7 sq mi)
Population
• 1939
16,000,303
CurrencyPeso
Driving sideleft (before 1945)
right (after 1945)
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Insular Government
Second Philippine Republic
Philippine Executive Commission
Third Philippine Republic
Today part of Philippines
  1. Capital held by enemy forces between 24 December 1941 and 27 February 1945. Temporary capitals were

The Commonwealth of the Philippines (Spanish: Commonwealth de Filipinas;[1] Tagalog: Komonwelt ng Pilipinas[3] or Malasariling Pamahalaan ng Pilipinas[4]) was the administrative body that governed the Philippines from 1935 to 1946, aside from a period of exile in the Second World War from 1942 to 1945 when Japan occupied the country. It replaced the Insular Government, a United States territorial government, and was established by the Tydings–McDuffie Act. The Commonwealth was designed as a transitional administration in preparation for the country's full achievement of independence.[10] Its foreign affairs remained managed by the United States.[11]

During its more than a decade of existence, the Commonwealth had a strong executive and a Supreme Court. Its legislature, dominated by the Nacionalista Party, was at first unicameral, but later bicameral. In 1937, the government selected Tagalog – the language of Manila and its surrounding provinces – as the basis of the national language, although it would be many years before its usage became general. Women's suffrage was adopted and the economy recovered to its pre-Depression level before the Japanese occupation in 1942.

The Commonwealth government went into exile from 1942 to 1945, when the Philippines was under Japanese occupation. In 1946, the Commonwealth ended and the Philippines claimed full sovereignty as provided for in Article XVIII of the 1935 Constitution.[12]