commonwealth of the philippinescommonwealth de filipinas (spanish)komonwelt ng pilipinas or malasariling pamahalaan ng pilipinas (tagalog)
japanese occupation: 1942–45
flag of the united states
(top)flag of the philippines
motto: "e pluribus unum" (latin) (de facto)"out of many, one""mula sa marami, isa" (tagalog)
anthem: the philippine hymn
location of the philippines in southeast asia
|status||associated state and protectorate of the united states|
|religion ||roman catholicism|
|government||unitary presidential constitutional republic under a commonwealth|
|manuel l. quezon|
|high commissioner|| |
|paul v. mcnutt|
|francis bowes sayre|
|paul v. mcnutt|
|vice president|| |
- national assembly (1935–41)
- congress (1945–46)
|historical era||interwar, world war ii|
|november 15, 1935|
|july 4, 1946|
|october 22, 1946|
|1939||343,385.1 km2 (132,581.7 sq mi)|
|driving side||left (before 1945)|
right (after 1945)
|today part of|| philippines|
- capital held by enemy forces between 24 december 1941 and 27 february 1945. temporary capitals were
- corregidor island from 24 december 1941;
- iloilo city from 22 february 1942;
- bacolod from 26 february;
- buenos aires, bago city from 27 february;
- oroquieta from 19 march;
- bukidnon from 23 march;
- government-in-exile in melbourne, australia, in april;
- government-in-exile in washington, d.c., from may 1942 to october 1944;
- tacloban from 20 october 1944.
- the commonwealth government continued its existence as a government-in-exile in the united states during the japanese occupation and later as the third republic. in effect, there existed two philippine governments during the japanese occupation.
the commonwealth of the philippines (spanish: commonwealth de filipinas; tagalog: komonwelt ng pilipinas or malasariling pamahalaan ng pilipinas) was the administrative body that governed the philippines from 1935 to 1946, aside from a period of exile in the second world war from 1942 to 1945 when japan occupied the country. it replaced the insular government, a united states territorial government, and was established by the tydings–mcduffie act. the commonwealth was designed as a transitional administration in preparation for the country's full achievement of independence. its foreign affairs remained managed by the united states.
during its more than a decade of existence, the commonwealth had a strong executive and a supreme court. its legislature, dominated by the nacionalista party, was at first unicameral, but later bicameral. in 1937, the government selected tagalog – the language of manila and its surrounding provinces – as the basis of the national language, although it would be many years before its usage became general. women's suffrage was adopted and the economy recovered to its pre-depression level before the japanese occupation in 1942.
the commonwealth government went into exile from 1942 to 1945, when the philippines was under japanese occupation. in 1946, the commonwealth ended and the philippines claimed full sovereignty as provided for in article xviii of the 1935 constitution.