Buddhism and Hinduism

Buddhism and Hinduism have common origins in the Ganges culture of northern India during the so - called "second urbanisation" around 500 BCE.[1] They have shared parallel beliefs that have existed side by side, but also pronounced differences.[2]

Buddhism attained prominence in the Indian subcontinent as it was supported by royal courts, but started to decline after the Gupta era and virtually disappeared from India in the 11th century CE, except in some pockets. It has continued to exist outside of India and has become the major religion in several Asian countries.


Certain Buddhist teachings appear to have been formulated in response to ideas presented in the early Upanishads – in some cases concurring with them, and in other cases criticizing or re-interpreting them.[3][4][5]

The influence of Upanishads, the earliest philosophical texts of Hindus, on Buddhism has been a subject of debate among scholars. While Radhakrishnan, Oldenberg and Neumann were convinced of Upanishadic influence on the Buddhist canon, Eliot and Thomas highlighted the points where Buddhism was opposed to Upanishads.[6]

Buddhism may have been influenced by some Upanishadic ideas, it however discarded their orthodox tendencies.[7] In Buddhist texts he is presented as rejecting avenues of salvation as "pernicious views".[8] Later schools of Indian religious thought were influenced by this interpretation and novel ideas of the Buddhist tradition of beliefs.[9]