Belize

Belize

Motto: "Sub Umbra Floreo" (Latin)
"Under the shade I flourish"
Anthem: "Land of the Free"

Location of Belize (dark green) in the Americas
Location of Belize (dark green)

in the Americas

Location of Belize
CapitalBelmopan
17°15′N 88°46′W / 17°15′N 88°46′W / 17.250; -88.767
Largest cityBelize City
Official languagesEnglish
Recognized languages
Ethnic groups
(2010)[1][2][a]
Religion
(2010[1][2])
Demonym(s)Belizean
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy
• Monarch
Elizabeth II
Colville Young
Dean Barrow
LegislatureNational Assembly
Senate
House of Representatives
Independence
• from the United Kingdom
21 September 1981
Area
• Total
22,966 km2 (8,867 sq mi)[3][4] (147th)
• Water (%)
0.8
Population
• 2019 estimate
408,487 estimate[5]
• 2010 census
324,528[6]
• Density
17.2/km2 (44.5/sq mi) (213th)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$3.343 billion[7]
• Per capita
$8,590[7]
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$1.912 billion[7]
• Per capita
$4,906[7]
Gini (2013)53.1[8]
high
HDI (2017)Decrease 0.708[9]
high · 106th
CurrencyBelize dollar (BZD)
Time zoneUTC−6 (CST)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
Driving sideright
Calling code+501
ISO 3166 codeBZ
Internet TLD.bz

Belize (z/ (About this soundlisten)) is an independent and sovereign country located on the north eastern coast of Central America. Belize is bordered on the northwest by Mexico, on the east by the Caribbean Sea, and on the south and west by Guatemala. It has an area of 22,970 square kilometres (8,867 sq mi) and a population of 408,487 (2019).[5] Its mainland is about 180 mi (290 km) long and 68 mi (110 km) wide. It has the lowest population and population density in Central America.[10] The country's population growth rate of 1.87% per year (2018 estimate) is the second highest in the region and one of the highest in the Western Hemisphere.[2]

The Maya Civilization spread into the area of Belize between 1500 B.C. and 300 A.D. and flourished until about 1200.[11] European colonization campaigns began in 1502 when Christopher Columbus sailed along the Gulf of Honduras.[12] European settlement and genocide of indigenous peoples was begun by English settlers in 1638. This period was also marked by Spain and Britain both laying claim to the land until Britain defeated the Spanish in the Battle of St. George's Caye (1798).[13] It became a British colony in 1840, known as British Honduras, and a Crown colony in 1862. Independence was achieved from the United Kingdom on 21 September 1981.

Belize has a very diverse society that is composed of many cultures and languages that reflect its rich history. English is the official language of Belize, while Belizean Creole is the most widely spoken national language, being the native language of over a third of the population. Over half the population is multilingual, with Spanish being the second most common spoken language. It is known for its September Celebrations, its extensive barrier reef coral reefs and punta music.[14][15]

Belize's abundance of terrestrial and marine species and its diversity of ecosystems give it a key place in the globally significant Mesoamerican Biological Corridor.[16] It is considered a Central American and Caribbean nation with strong ties to both the American and Caribbean regions.[17] It is a member of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM), the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC), and the Central American Integration System (SICA), the only country to hold full membership in all three regional organisations. Belize is a Commonwealth realm, with Queen Elizabeth II as its monarch and head of state.

Etymology

The earliest known record of the name "Belize" appears in the journal of the Dominican priest Fray José Delgado, dating to 1677.[18] Delgado recorded the names of three major rivers that he crossed while travelling north along the Caribbean coast: Rio Soyte, Rio Xibum and Rio Balis. The names of these waterways, which correspond to the Sittee River, Sibun River and Belize River, were provided to Delgado by his translator.[18] It has been proposed that Delgado's "Balis" was actually the Mayan word belix (or beliz), meaning "muddy-watered".[18] More recently, it has been proposed that the name comes from the Mayan phrase "bel Itza", meaning "the road to Itza".[19]

In the 1820s, the créole elite of Belize invented the legend that the toponym Belize derived from the Spanish pronunciation of the name of a Scottish buccaneer, Peter Wallace, who established a settlement at the mouth of the Belize River in 1638.[20] There is no proof that buccaneers settled in this area and the very existence of Wallace is considered a myth.[18][19] Writers and historians have suggested several other possible etymologies, including postulated French and African origins.[18]