Andes

Andes Mountains
Cordillera de los Andes
Cordillera de los Andes.jpg
The Andes mountain range, as seen from an airplane, between Santiago de Chile and Mendoza, Argentina, in summer. The large ice field corresponds to the southern slope of San José volcano (left) and Marmolejo (right). Tupungato at their right.
Highest point
PeakAconcagua (Las Heras Department, Mendoza, Argentina)
Elevation6,961 m (22,838 ft)
Coordinates32°S 70°W / 32°S 70°W / -32; -70
Geography
Andes.png
Map of South America showing the Andes running along the entire western part (roughly parallel to the Pacific coast) of the continent
Countries

The Andes, Andes Mountains or Andean Mountains (Spanish: Cordillera de los Andes) are the longest continental mountain range in the world, forming a continuous highland along the western edge of South America. The range is 7,000 km (4,300 mi) long, 200 to 700 km (120 to 430 mi) wide (widest between 18° south and 20° south latitude), and has an average height of about 4,000 m (13,000 ft). The Andes extend from north to south through seven South American countries: Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Chile and Argentina.

Along their length, the Andes are split into several ranges, separated by intermediate depressions. The Andes are the location of several high plateaus – some of which host major cities such as Quito, Bogotá, Cali, Arequipa, Medellín, Bucaramanga, Sucre, Mérida and La Paz. The Altiplano plateau is the world's second-highest after the Tibetan plateau. These ranges are in turn grouped into three major divisions based on climate: the Tropical Andes, the Dry Andes, and the Wet Andes.

The Andes Mountains are the highest mountain range outside Asia. The highest mountain outside Asia, Argentina's Mount Aconcagua, rises to an elevation of about 6,961 m (22,838 ft) above sea level. The peak of Chimborazo in the Ecuadorian Andes is farther from the Earth's center than any other location on the Earth's surface, due to the equatorial bulge resulting from the Earth's rotation. The world's highest volcanoes are in the Andes, including Ojos del Salado on the Chile-Argentina border, which rises to 6,893 m (22,615 ft).

The Andes are also part of the American Cordillera, a chain of mountain ranges (cordillera) that consists of an almost continuous sequence of mountain ranges that form the western "backbone" of North America, Central America, South America and Antarctica.

Aconcagua

Etymology

The etymology of the word Andes has been debated. The majority consensus is that it derives from the Quechua word anti, which means "east"[1] as in Antisuyu (Quechua for "east region"),[1] one of the four regions of the Inca Empire.

The term cordillera comes from the Spanish word cordel, meaning "rope",[2] and is used as a descriptive names for several contiguous sections of the Andes, as well as the entire Andean range, and the combined mountain chain along the western part of the North and South American continents.