Algeria

People's Democratic Republic of Algeria

الجمهورية الجزائرية الديمقراطية الشعبية (Arabic)
République algérienne démocratique et populaire  (French)
Motto: بالشّعب وللشّعب
("By the people and for the people")[1][2]
Anthem: Kassaman
(English: "We Pledge")
Location of Algeria (dark green)
Location of Algeria (dark green)
Location of Algeria
Capital
and largest city
Algiers
36°42′N 3°13′E / 36°42′N 3°13′E / 36.700; 3.217
Official languages
Other languagesFrench (administration, business and education)[5]
Algerian Arabic (Darja) (lingua franca)
Ethnic groups
Religion
Islam
Demonym(s)Algerian
GovernmentUnitary semi-presidential constitutional republic
• President
Abdelmadjid Tebboune
Abdelaziz Djerad
LegislatureParliament
Council of the Nation
People's National Assembly
Formation
1515
5 July 1830
• Independence from France
3 July 1962
• Recognised
5 July 1962
10 September 1963
Area
• Total
2,381,741 km2 (919,595 sq mi) (10th)
• Water (%)
1.1
Population
• 2019 estimate
43,000,000 [6] (32nd)
• Density
17.7/km2 (45.8/sq mi) (168)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
Increase $684.649 billion[7] (35th)
• Per capita
Increase $15,765[7] (82nd)
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
Increase $180.687 billion[7] (53rd)
• Per capita
Increase $4,229[7] (109th)
Gini (2011)27.6[8][9]
low
HDI (2018)Increase 0.759[10]
high · 82nd
CurrencyDinar (DZD)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
Driving sideright
Calling code+213
ISO 3166 codeDZ
Internet TLD.dz
الجزائر.

Algeria (ə/ (About this soundlisten) JEER-ee-ə; Arabic: الجزائر‎, romanizedal-Jazāʾir, Algerian Arabic: الدزاير‎, romanized: al-dzāyīr; French: Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria (Arabic: الجمهورية الجزائرية الديمقراطية الشعبية‎, romanizedal-Jumhūriyya al-Jazāʾiriyya ad-Dīmuqrāṭiyya aš-Šaʿbiyya, French: République algérienne démocratique et populaire, abbreviated as RADP), is a country in the Maghreb region of North Africa, The capital and most populous city is Algiers, located in the far north of the country on the Mediterranean coast. With an area of 2,381,741 square kilometres (919,595 sq mi), Algeria is the tenth-largest country in the world, and the largest in the Arab world and Africa.[11] With an estimated population of over 42 million, it is among the ten most populous states in Africa. Algeria is bordered to the northeast by Tunisia, to the east by Libya, to the west by Morocco, to the southwest by the Western Saharan territory, Mauritania, and Mali, to the southeast by Niger, and to the north by the Mediterranean Sea. It is a semi-presidential republic consisting of 48 provinces and 1,541 communes (counties).

Pre-1962 Algeria has known many empires and dynasties, including ancient Numidians, Phoenicians, Carthaginians, Romans, Vandals, Byzantines, Umayyads, Abbasids, Idrisid, Aghlabid, Rustamid, Fatimids, Zirid, Hammadids, Almoravids, Almohads, Zayyanids, Spaniards, Ottomans and, finally, the French colonial empire.

Algeria is a regional and middle power. It has the highest human development index of all non-island African countries and one of the largest economies on the continent, based largely on energy exports. Algeria has the 16th largest oil reserves in the world and the second largest in Africa, while it has the ninth largest reserves of natural gas. Sonatrach, the national oil company, is the largest company in Africa, supplying large amounts of natural gas to Europe. Algeria has one of the largest militaries in Africa and the largest defence budget. It is a member of the African Union, the Arab League, OPEC, the United Nations, and the Arab Maghreb Union, of which it is a founding member.

Etymology

The country's name derives from the city of Algiers. The city's name in turn derives from the Arabic al-Jazāʾir (الجزائر, "The Islands"),[12] a truncated form of the older Jazāʾir Banī Mazghanna (جزائر بني مزغنة, "Islands of the Mazghanna Tribe"),[13][14][page needed][15][page needed] employed by medieval geographers such as al-Idrisi.